Impact of Tobacco Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Cardiovascular Risk and Disease

Christopher Bullen


Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008;6(6):883-895. 

In This Article

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) affects approximately 20% of adults older than 55 years of age, roughly half of whom are asymptomatic. Of these, 5–10% progress to symptomatic PVD within 5 years. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of PVD sevenfold[22] and progression to symptomatic disease occurs a decade earlier than in nonsmokers. The risk of developing claudication increases with the intensity of smoking. The 5-year mortality for patients with claudication who continue to smoke is 40–50%.[22–27] Current smokers with PVD also have twice the amputation rate of nonsmokers,[28] an increased risk of graft failure following femoro-popliteal bypass surgery[29] and increased postoperative mortality.[30]


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