Diagnosis and Management of Malignant Tumors of the Eyelid, Conjunctiva, and Orbit

Kaan Gündüz; Bita Esmaeli


Expert Rev Ophthalmol. 2008;3(1):63-75. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


Ocular adnexal tumors are relatively rare but require unique diagnostic and treatment considerations given the functional importance of the eye and periocular structures and their unique metastatic behavior. In the following paper, we review the major malignant tumors of the ocular adnexa including the eyelid, conjunctiva and orbit. Frozen section control of the margins and, in selected cases, Mohs microsurgery have decreased the recurrence rate in malignant eyelid tumors. Intraoperative cryotherapy and postoperative topical mitomycin C have similarly contributed to better surgical outcomes in conjunctival malignant tumors including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Immunotherapy with CD20 antibodies is a developing treatment in ocular adnexal lymphomas.


Malignant ocular adnexal tumors comprise a diverse group of disorders. The outline of the major malignant tumors discussed in this paper are given in Box 1 .