Minimizing Genital Tract Trauma and Related Pain Following Spontaneous Vaginal Birth

Leah L. Albers, CNM, DrPH; Noelle Borders, CNM, MSN


J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007;52(3):246-253. 

In This Article

Care at Birth

Care measures at birth can be separated into those that are directly or indirectly linked with perineal outcomes. Care measures that could indirectly influence perineal outcomes include the style of pushing women are encouraged to do in the second stage of labor and maternal position for birth. Episiotomy and other manual techniques for perineal management may directly affect the degree of obstetric trauma sustained.


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