Relationship Between Funding Source and Conclusion Among Nutrition-Related Scientific Articles

Lenard I. Lesser; Cara B. Ebbeling; Merrill Goozner; David Wypij; David S. Ludwig


PLoS Med. 2007;4(2) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


Background: Industrial support of biomedical research may bias scientific conclusions, as demonstrated by recent analyses of pharmaceutical studies. However, this issue has not been systematically examined in the area of nutrition research. The purpose of this study is to characterize financial sponsorship of scientific articles addressing the health effects of three commonly consumed beverages, and to determine how sponsorship affects published conclusions.
Methods and Findings: Medline searches of worldwide literature were used to identify three article types (interventional studies, observational studies, and scientific reviews) about soft drinks, juice, and milk published between 1 January, 1999 and 31 December, 2003. Financial sponsorship and article conclusions were classified by independent groups of coinvestigators. The relationship between sponsorship and conclusions was explored by exact tests and regression analyses, controlling for covariates. 206 articles were included in the study, of which 111 declared financial sponsorship. Of these, 22% had all industry funding, 47% had no industry funding, and 32% had mixed funding. Funding source was significantly related to conclusions when considering all article types (p = 0.037). For interventional studies, the proportion with unfavorable conclusions was 0% for all industry funding versus 37% for no industry funding (p = 0.009). The odds ratio of a favorable versus unfavorable conclusion was 7.61 (95% confidence interval 1.27 to 45.73), comparing articles with all industry funding to no industry funding.
Conclusions: Industry funding of nutrition-related scientific articles may bias conclusions in favor of sponsors' products, with potentially significant implications for public health.


The extent of industrial funding for pharmaceutical research, and its implications for public health, have been extensively considered in recent years. Moses et al. reported that pharmaceutical firms provided 30% of the almost $100 billion spent on biomedical research in the United States in 2004.[1] These expenditures raise concerns about the integrity of pharmaceutical research.[2] A meta-analysis by Bekelman et al. of 37 original quantitative studies of bias in pharmaceutical research found significant association between industry sponsorship and pro-industry conclusions (odds ratio [OR] 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.63 to 4.91).[3]

In contrast, little information is available regarding the prevalence or impact of funding by the food industry on nutrition research. Whereas bias in pharmaceutical research could have an adverse effect on the health of millions of individuals who take medications, bias in nutrition research could have an adverse effect on the health of everyone. Findings of nutrition research influence the formulation of governmental and professional dietary guidelines, the design of public health interventions, and regulation of food product health claims. In addition, these findings may receive widespread publicity in the popular media, directly affecting consumer behavior.

Nestle examined a convenience sample of 11 studies from food, beverage, or supplement companies, reporting that "it [was] difficult to find studies that did not come to conclusions favoring the sponsor's commercial interest".[4] Levine et al. found that authors taking a supportive compared to a critical or neutral position on the fat substitute olestra were much more likely to have a financial relationship with the manufacturer (80% versus 11% or 21%, respectively; p < 0.001).[5] However, a systematic investigation of bias in nutrition research has not been conducted.

The aim of this study was to examine financial sponsorship of nutrition-related scientific articles, and whether sponsorship affects published conclusions. We hypothesized that scientific articles funded exclusively by the food industry or affiliated organizations would be more likely to have favorable conclusions than articles without industry-associated sponsorship. In 2003, approximately 10,000 nutrition-related scientific articles were published on many foods and nutrients, examining a variety of endpoints relating to numerous health states, and employing widely varying study designs (Medline literature search using the terms "nutrition" or "food" or "beverage," limited to 2003, conducted on 15 March 2006). To avoid the methodological challenges arising from such great heterogeneity, we chose to focus our investigation on soft drinks, juices, and milk. The health risks and benefits of these three beverages have been the subject of much recent controversy, and the beverage industry is large and highly profitable, arguably creating an environment in which scientific bias might occur.


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