Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006

Kimberly A. Workowski, MD; Stuart M. Berman, MD

Disclosures

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(30):1-94. 

In This Article

Scabies

The predominant symptom of scabies is pruritus. Sensitization to Sarcoptes scabiei occurs before pruritus begins. The first time a person is infested with S. scabiei, sensitization takes up to several weeks to develop. However, pruritus might occur within 24 hours after a subsequent reinfestation. Scabies in adults frequently is sexually acquired, although scabies in children usually is not.

Recommended Regimen
Permethrin cream (5%) applied to all areas of the body from the neck down and washed off after 8--14 hours
OR
Ivermectin 200ug/kg orally, repeated in 2 weeks

Alternative Regimens
Lindane (1%) 1 oz. of lotion or 30 g of cream applied in a thin layer to all areas of the body from the neck down and thoroughly washed off after 8 hours

Lindane is not recommended as first-line therapy because of toxicity. It should only be used as an alternative if the patient cannot tolerate other therapies or if other therapies have failed.

Lindane should not be used immediately after a bath or shower, and it should not be used by persons who have extensive dermatitis, women who are pregnant or lactating, or children aged <2 years. Lindane resistance has been reported in some areas of the world, including parts of the United States. Seizures have occurred when lindane was applied after a bath or used by patients who had extensive dermatitis. Aplastic anemia after lindane use also has been reported.

Permethrin is effective and safe and less expensive than ivermectin. One study demonstrated increased mortality among elderly, debilitated persons who received ivermectin, but this observation has not been confirmed in subsequent reports.[218]

Bedding and clothing should be decontaminated (i.e., either machine-washed, machine-dried using the hot cycle, or dry cleaned) or removed from body contact for at least 72 hours. Fumigation of living areas is unnecessary.

Crusted scabies (i.e., Norwegian scabies) is an aggressive infestation that usually occurs in immunodeficient, debilitated, or malnourished persons. Patients who are receiving systemic or potent topical glucocorticoids, organ transplant recipients, mentally retarded or physically incapacitated persons, HIV-infected or human T-lymphotrophic virus-1-infected persons, and persons with various hematologic malignancies are at risk for developing crusted scabies. Crusted scabies is associated with greater transmissibility than scabies. No controlled therapeutic studies for crusted scabies have been conducted, and the appropriate treatment remains unclear. Substantial treatment failure might occur with a single topical scabicide or with oral ivermectin treatment. Some specialists recommend combined treatment with a topical scabicide and oral ivermectin or repeated treatments with ivermectin 200 ug/kg on days 1, 15, and 29. Lindane should be avoided because of the risks for neurotoxicity with heavy applications or denuded skin. Patient's fingernails should be closely trimmed to reduce injury from excessive scratching.

Patients should be informed that the rash and pruritus of scabies might persist for up to 2 weeks after treatment. Symptoms or signs that persist for >2 weeks can be attributed to several factors. Treatment failure might be caused by resistance to medication or by faulty application of topical scabicides. Patients with crusted scabies might have poor penetration into thick scaly skin and harbor mites in these difficult-to-penetrate layers. Particular attention must be given to the fingernails of these patients. Reinfection from family members or fomites might occur in the absence of appropriate contact treatment and washing of bedding and clothing. Even when treatment is successful and reinfection is avoided, symptoms can persist or worsen as a result of allergic dermatitis. Finally, household mites can cause symptoms to persist as a result of crossreactivity between antigens. Some specialists recommend re-treatment after 1--2 weeks for patients who are still symptomatic; others recommend re-treatment only if live mites are observed. Patients who do not respond to the recommended treatment should be re-treated with an alternative regimen.

Both sexual and close personal or household contacts within the preceding month should be examined and treated.

Scabies epidemics frequently occur in nursing homes, hospitals, residential facilities, and other communities. Control of an epidemic can only be achieved by treatment of the entire population at risk. Ivermectin can be considered in this setting, especially if treatment with topical scabicides fails. Epidemics should be managed in consultation with a specialist.

Special Considerations

Infants, Young Children, and Pregnant or Lactating Women

Infants, young children, and pregnant or lactating women should not be treated with lindane. They can be treated with permethrin.

Ivermectin is not recommended for pregnant or lactating patients. The safety of ivermectin in children who weigh <15 kg has not been determined.

HIV Infection

Patients who have uncomplicated scabies and also are infected with HIV should receive the same treatment regimens as those who are HIV negative. HIV-infected patients and others who are immunosuppressed are at increased risk for crusted scabies. Ivermectin has been reported to be useful in small, noncontrolled studies. Such patients should be managed in consultation with a specialist.

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