Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006

Kimberly A. Workowski, MD; Stuart M. Berman, MD

Disclosures

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(30):1-94. 

In This Article

Ectoparasitic Infections

Patients who have pediculosis pubis (i.e., pubic lice) usually seek medical attention because of pruritus or because they notice lice or nits on their pubic hair. Pediculosis pubis is usually transmitted by sexual contact.

Recommended Regimens
Permethrin 1% cream rinse applied to affected areas and washed off after 10 minutes
OR
Pyrethrins with piperonyl butoxide applied to the affected area and washed off after 10 minutes

Alternative Regimens
Malathion 0.5% lotion applied for 8--12 hours and washed off
OR
Ivermectin 250 ug/kg repeated in 2 weeks

Reported resistance to pediculcides has been increasing and is widespread. Malathion may be used when treatment failure is believed to have occurred because of resistance.[217] The odor and long duration of application for malathion make it a less attractive alternative than the recommended pediculcides. Ivermectin has been successfully used to treat lice but has only been evaluated in small studies.

Lindane is not recommended as first-line therapy because of toxicity. It should only be used as an alternative because of inability to tolerate other therapies or if other therapies have failed. Lindane toxicity, as indicated by seizure and aplastic anemia, has not been reported when treatment was limited to the recommended 4-minute period. Permethrin has less potential for toxicity than lindane.

Other Management Considerations

The recommended regimens should not be applied to the eyes. Pediculosis of the eyelashes should be treated by applying occlusive ophthalmic ointment to the eyelid margins twice a day for 10 days. Bedding and clothing should be decontaminated (i.e., machine-washed, machine-dried using the heat cycle, or dry cleaned) or removed from body contact for at least 72 hours. Fumigation of living areas is not necessary.

Patients with pediculosis pubis should be evaluated for other STDs.

Follow-Up

Patients should be evaluated after 1 week if symptoms persist. Re-treatment might be necessary if lice are found or if eggs are observed at the hair-skin junction. Patients who do not respond to one of the recommended regimens should be re-treated with an alternative regimen.

Management of Sex Partners

Sex partners within the previous month should be treated. Patients should avoid sexual contact with their sex partner(s) until patients and partners have been treated and reevaluated to rule out persistent disease.

Special Considerations

Pregnancy

Pregnant and lactating women should be treated with either permethrin or pyrethrins with piperonyl butoxide; lindane is contraindicated in pregnancy.

HIV Infection

Patients who have pediculosis pubis and also are infected with HIV should receive the same treatment regimen as those who are HIV negative.

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