Prevention and Control of Influenza, Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

Nicole M. Smith, PhD; Joseph S. Bresee, MD; David K. Shay, MD; Timothy M. Uyeki, MD; Nancy J. Cox, PhD; Raymond A. Strikas, MD


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(27):1-41. 

In This Article

Target Groups for Vaccination

Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for the following groups:

Vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccine is recommended for the following persons who are at increased risk for severe complications from influenza:

  • children aged 6-23 months;

  • children and adolescents (aged 6 months-18 years) who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy and, therefore, might be at risk for experiencing Reye syndrome after influenza virus infection;

  • women who will be pregnant during the influenza season;

  • adults and children who have chronic disorders of the pulmonary or cardiovascular systems, including asthma (hypertension is not considered a high-risk condition);

  • adults and children who have required regular medical follow-up or hospitalization during the preceding year because of chronic metabolic diseases (including diabetes mellitus), renal dysfunction, hemoglobinopathies, or immunodeficiency (including immunodeficiency caused by medications or by human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]);

  • adults and children who have any condition (e.g., cognitive dysfunction, spinal cord injuries, seizure disorders, or other neuromuscular disorders) that can compromise respiratory function or the handling of respiratory secretions or that can increase the risk for aspiration;

  • residents of nursing homes and other chronic-care facilities that house persons of any age who have chronic medical conditions; and

  • persons aged ≥65 years.

Vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccine also is recommended for the following persons because of an increased risk for influenza-associated clinic, emergency department, or hospital visits, particularly if they have a high-risk medical condition:

  • children aged 24-59 months and

  • persons aged 50-64 years.

In addition, to prevent transmission to persons identified above, vaccination with TIV or LAIV is recommended for the following persons, unless contraindicated:

  • healthy household contacts and caregivers of children aged 0-59 months and persons at high risk for severe complications from influenza and

  • health-care workers.

In 2006, approximately 218.1 million persons in the United States will be included in one or more of these target groups, including 6.0 million children aged 6-23 months, 10.6 million healthy children aged 24-59 months, 44.0 million persons aged 2-64 years with one or more conditions associated with an increased risk for influenza-related complications, 4.0 million pregnant women, 33.0 million healthy persons aged 50-64 years, approximately 2 million nursing home residents, 37.2 million persons aged ≥65 years, 94.8 million healthy household contacts, and 7.0 million health-care workers aged <65 years (CDC, unpublished data, 2006).


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