Prevention and Control of Influenza, Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

Nicole M. Smith, PhD; Joseph S. Bresee, MD; David K. Shay, MD; Timothy M. Uyeki, MD; Nancy J. Cox, PhD; Raymond A. Strikas, MD


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(27):1-41. 

In This Article

Additional Information Regarding Influenza Virus Infection Control Among Specific Populations

Each year, ACIP provides general, annually updated information regarding control and prevention of influenza. Other reports related to controlling and preventing influenza among specific populations (e.g., immunocompromised persons, health-care workers, hospital patients, pregnant women, children, and travelers) also are available in the following publications:

  • American Academy of Pediatrics. 2006 red book: report of the
    Committee on Infectious Diseases. 27th ed. Elk Grove Village,
    IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2006.

  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
    Influenza vaccination and treatment during pregnancy. ACOG
    committee opinion no. 305. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:1125-6.

  • Bodnar UR, Maloney SA, Fielding KL, et al. Preliminary
    guidelines for the prevention and control of influenza-like illness
    among passengers and crew members on cruise ships.
    Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services,
    CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases; 1999.

  • Bradley SF. The Long-Term-Care Committee of the Society for
    Health-care Epidemiology of America. Prevention of influenza in
    long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

  • CDC. Influenza vaccination of health-care personnel:
    recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices
    Advisory Committee (HICPAC) and the Advisory Committee on
    Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 2006;55(No. RR-2).

  • CDC. Recommended adult immunization schedule -
    United States, October 2005-September 2006. MMWR 2005;54:Q1-4.

  • CDC. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated
    pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Health-
    care Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR
    2003;53(No. RR-3).

  • CDC. Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette in healthcare
    settings. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human
    Services, CDC; 2003. Available at

  • CDC. Prevention of specific infectious diseases [Chapter 4]. In:
    Travelers' Health: Yellow Book. Health information for
    international travel, 2005-2006. Atlanta, GA: US Department of
    Health and Human Services, CDC; 2006. Available at

  • CDC. General recommendations on immunization:
    recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization
    Practices (ACIP) and the American Academy of Family
    Physicians (AAFP). MMWR 2002;51(No. RR-2).

  • CDC. Detection and control of influenza outbreaks in acute care
    facilities. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human
    Services, CDC, National Center for Infections Diseases; 2001.

  • Garner JS, Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory
    Committee. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:53-80.

  • Sneller V-P, Izurieta H, Bridges C, et al. Prevention and control
    of vaccine-preventable diseases in long-term care facilities.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2000;1

  • US Public Health Service (USPHS) and Infectious Diseases
    Society of America (IDSA). USPHS/IDSA Prevention of
    Opportunistic Infections Working Group. 2001 USPHS/IDSA
    guidelines for the prevention of opportunistic infections in
    persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Final
    November 28, 2001:1-65. Available at

Membership List, February 2006

Chairman: Jon Abramson, MD, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Executive Secretary: Larry Pickering, MD, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (proposed), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Members: Ban Mishu Allos, MD, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee; Robert Beck, Consumer Representative, Palmyra, Virginia; Judith Campbell, MD, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Reginald Finger, MD, Focus on the Family, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Janet Gildsdorf, MD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Harry Hull, MD, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Tracy Lieu, MD, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Edgar Marcuse, MD, Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington; Dale Morse, MD, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York; Julia Morita, MD, Chicago Department of Health, Chicago, Illinois; Gregory Poland, MD, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota; Patricia Stinchfield, NP, Children's Hospital and Clinics, St. Paul, Minnesota; John J. Treanor, MD, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York; and Robin Womeodu, MD, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Ex-Officio Members: James E. Cheek, MD, Indian Health Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Wayne Hachey, DO, Department of Defense, Falls Church, Virginia; Geoffrey S. Evans, MD, Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville, Maryland; Bruce Gellin, MD, National Vaccine Program Office, Washington, DC; Linda Murphy, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, Maryland; George T. Curlin, MD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Norman Baylor, MD, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; Kristin Lee Nichol, MD, Department of Veterans Affairs, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Liaison Representatives: American Academy of Family Physicians, Jonathan Temte, MD, Clarence, New York, and Richard Clover, MD, Louisville, Kentucky; American Academy of Pediatrics, Keith Powell, MD, and Carol Baker, MD, Houston, Texas; American Association of Health Plans, Andrea Gelzer, MD, Hartford, Connecticut; American College Health Association, James C. Turner, MD, Charlottesville, Virginia; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Stanley Gall, MD, Louisville, Kentucky; American College of Physicians, Kathleen M. Neuzil, MD, Seattle, Washington; American Medical Association, Litjen Tan, PhD, Chicago, Illinois; American Pharmacists Association, Stephan L. Foster, PharmD, Memphis, Tennessee; Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine, W. Paul McKinney, MD, Louisville, Kentucky; Biotechnology Industry Organization, Clement Lewin, PhD, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, Monica Naus, MD, Vancouver, British Columbia; Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, Steve Gordon, MD, Cleveland, Ohio; Infectious Diseases Society of America, Samuel L. Katz, MD, Durham, North Carolina, and William Schaffner, MD, Nashville, Tennessee; London Department of Health, David M. Salisbury, MD, London, United Kingdom; National Association of County and City Health Officials, Nancy Bennett, MD, Rochester, New York; National Coalition for Adult Immunization, David A. Neumann, PhD, Bethesda, Maryland; National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, William Schaffner, MD, Nashville, Tennessee; National Immunization Council and Child Health Program, Mexico, Romeo S. Rodriguez, Mexico City, Mexico; National Medical Association, Patricia Whitley-Williams, MD, New Brunswick, New Jersey; National Vaccine Advisory Committee, Charles Helms, MD, PhD, Iowa City, Iowa; Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, Damian A. Braga, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania, and Peter Paradiso, PhD, Collegeville, Pennsylvania; and Society for Adolescent Medicine, Amy Middleman, MD, Houston, Texas.

Chair: Ban Mishu Allos, MD, Nashville, Tennessee.

Members: Jon Abramson, MD, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Nancy Bennett, MD, Rochester, New York; Henry Bernstein, DO, Lebanon, New Hampshire; Joseph Bresee, MD, Atlanta, Georgia; Angela Calugar, MD, Atlanta, GA; Richard Clover, MD, Louisville, Kentucky; Nancy Cox, PhD, Atlanta, Georgia; Therese Cvetkovich, MD, Rockville, Maryland; Kathryn Edwards, MD, Nashville, Tennessee; Stanley Gall, MD, Louisville, Kentucky; Antonia Geber, MD, Rockville, Maryland; Penina Haber, MPH, Atlanta, Georgia; Guillermo Herrera, MD, Atlanta, Georgia; Harry Hull, MD, St. Paul, Minnesota; Marika Iwane, PhD, Atlanta, Georgia; Jim LeDuc, PhD, Atlanta, Georgia; Susan Lett, MD, Boston, Massachusetts; Roland Levandowski, MD, Bethesda, Maryland; Alison Mawle, PhD, Atlanta, Georgia; Kathleen Neuzil, MD, Seattle, Washington; Kristin Lee Nichol, MD, Minneapolis, Minnesota; William Schaffner, MD, Nashville, Tennessee; Benjamin Schwartz, MD, Atlanta, Georgia; David Shay, MD, Atlanta, Georgia; Nicole Smith, PhD, Atlanta, Georgia; Ray Strikas, MD, Atlanta, Georgia; Litjen Tan, PhD, Chicago, Illinois; John Treanor, MD, Rochester, New York; and Greg Wallace, MD, Atlanta, Georgia.


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