Prevention and Control of Influenza, Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

Nicole M. Smith, PhD; Joseph S. Bresee, MD; David K. Shay, MD; Timothy M. Uyeki, MD; Nancy J. Cox, PhD; Raymond A. Strikas, MD

Disclosures

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(27):1-41. 

In This Article

Pharmacokinetics

In studies of healthy volunteers, approximately 7%-21% of the orally inhaled zanamivir dose reached the lungs, and 70%-87% was deposited in the oropharynx.[317,372] Approximately 4%-17% of the total amount of orally inhaled zanamivir is systemically absorbed. Systemically absorbed zanamivir has a half-life of 2.5-5.1 hours and is excreted unchanged in the urine. Unabsorbed drug is excreted in the feces.[317,370]

Approximately 80% of orally administered oseltamivir is absorbed systemically.[371] Absorbed oseltamivir is metabolized to oseltamivir carboxylate, the active neuraminidase inhibitor, primarily by hepatic esterases. Oseltamivir carboxylate has a half-life of 6-10 hours and is excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion via the anionic pathway.[310,373] Unmetabolized oseltamivir also is excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.[325]

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