Prevention and Control of Influenza, Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

Nicole M. Smith, PhD; Joseph S. Bresee, MD; David K. Shay, MD; Timothy M. Uyeki, MD; Nancy J. Cox, PhD; Raymond A. Strikas, MD


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(27):1-41. 

In This Article

Recommendations for Using Antiviral Agents for Influenza

Although annual vaccination is the primary strategy for preventing complications of influenza virus infections, antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses can be effective for the chemoprophylaxis and treatment of influenza. Four licensed influenza antiviral agents are available in the United States: amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, and oseltamivir. Influenza A virus resistance to amantadine and rimantadine can emerge rapidly during treatment. On the basis of antiviral testing results conducted at CDC and in Canada indicating high levels of resistance,[23,24,284] ACIP recommends that neither amantadine nor rimantadine be used for the treatment or chemoprophylaxis of influenza A in the United States until susceptibility to these antiviral medications has been re-established among circulating influenza A viruses. Oseltamivir or zanamivir can be prescribed if antiviral treatment of influenza is indicated. Oseltamivir is approved for treatment of persons aged ≥1 year, and zanamivir is approved for treatment of persons aged ≥7 years. Oseltamivir and zanamivir can be used for chemoprophylaxis of influenza; oseltamivir is licensed for use in persons aged ≥1 year, and zanamivir is licensed for use in persons aged ≥5 years.


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