Prevention and Control of Influenza, Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

Nicole M. Smith, PhD; Joseph S. Bresee, MD; David K. Shay, MD; Timothy M. Uyeki, MD; Nancy J. Cox, PhD; Raymond A. Strikas, MD


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(27):1-41. 

In This Article

Future Directions for Research and Recommendations Related to Influenza Vaccine

The relatively low effectiveness of influenza vaccine administered to older adults highlights the need for more immunogenic influenza vaccines for the elderly[273] and the need for additional research to understand potential biases in estimating the benefits of vaccination among older adults in reducing hospitalizations and deaths.[274,275,276]  Additional studies of the relative cost-effectiveness and cost utility of influenza vaccination among children and adults, especially those aged <65 years, are needed and should be designed to account for year-to-year variations in influenza attack rates, illness severity, hospitalization costs and rates, and vaccine effectiveness.[277] Additional data also are needed to quantify the benefits of influenza vaccination of health-care workers in protecting their patients.[278] Furthermore, larger consortia of networks are needed that are able to assess rare events that occur after vaccination, including GBS.

ACIP continues to review new vaccination strategies to protect against influenza, including the possibility of expanding routine influenza vaccination recommendations toward universal vaccination or other approaches that will help greatly reduce or prevent the transmission of influenza.[279,280,281,282] In addition, as noted by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee, strengthening the U.S. influenza vaccination system will require improving vaccine financing, increasing demand, and implementing systems to help better understand the burden of influenza in the United States.[283] Strategies to evaluate the effect of vaccination recommendations remain critical.


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