Male Hypogonadism. Part II: Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Diagnosis

A. Seftel


Int J Impot Res. 2006;18(3):223-228. 

In This Article


In summary, male hypogonadism has a multifactorial etiology that includes congenital abnormalities, injury, infection, cancer, diabetes, treatment with certain medications, and alcohol abuse. In addition to obtaining androgen and other hormone levels, it is important to be familiar with the signs (e.g. anemia, oligospermia/azoospermia, muscle wasting) and symptoms (e.g. sexual dysfunction, mood disturbances, cognitive problems) because many patients do not report these manifestations. Assessment of presenting signs and symptoms, in concert with evaluations of the HPG axis, enables diagnosis of primary (hypergonadotropic) or secondary (hypogonadotropic) hypogonadism, which may prompt further work-ups and treatment.

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