Effects of Acute Exercise on Mood and Well-Being in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

John B. Bartholomew; David Morrison; Joseph T. Ciccolo


Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(12):2032-2037. 

In This Article


The mean RPE for exercise participants was 13.2SD 1.8). Results for the other psychological variables are presented in Table 1 . No significant main effects were noted for group: all P values > 0.15. Significant main effects, however, were noted for time for all variables: P values < 0.01, excluding SEES fatigue scores, which were P > 0.15. With regard to the specific hypotheses, a significant group × time interaction was seen for two of the nine variables used to indicate psychological state: psychological well-being as assessed by the SEES, F (3,114) = 5.32, P < 0.01; and vigor, as assessed by the POMS, F < (3,114) = 5.55, P < 0.01. Probing the interaction revealed that the exercise group reported significantly greater increases in positive well-being F[3,17] = 6.61, P < 0.01, than did the quiet rest group, with significant differences occurring at 5 min, d = 1.13, and 30 min, d = 1.06, after exercise. The exercise group also reported significantly greater increases in vigor compared with the quiet rest group, F[3,17] = 6.68, P < 0.01, with significant differences at 5 min, d = 1.02, and 30 min, d = 0.73 after exercise. Because the vigor subscale includes the item active, which may be misinterpreted to refer to physical activity rather than psychological vigor, the item was deleted for a second analysis. This deletion did not adversely affect the reliability of the resulting subscale, with a Cronbach alpha equal to 0.80. Results indicated no difference from the initial analysis. The group × time interaction remained significant for the modified vigor subscale, F (3,114) = 5.94, P < 0.01; with a pattern of resultsd = 1.17 at 5 min; and 0.76 at 30 min) similar to the full subscale. One participant reported a high RPE of 18, suggesting that individual's exercise was of high intensity. The analysis was rerun after deletion of factors related to this participant. The deleted factors had no effect on the pattern of results, with psychological well-being, F (3,111) = 6.36, P < 0.01; and vigor, F < (3,111) = 5.23, P < 0.01, remaining as the only significant group × time interactions.


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