Three-Dimensional Mapping in Interventional Electrophysiology: Techniques and Technology

Douglas L. Packer, M.D.


J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005;16(10):1110-1116. 

In This Article

The Future of Cardiac Mapping

Automatic segmentation, registration, and the capability of fusing multimodality imaging technologies into a single coherent display will undoubtedly evolve over the next 5 years. It is not highly likely, but probable that the ablative interventions within this time frame will be based on these kinds of multimodality image fusion. With the advent of ultra rapid CT imaging, multiple image sets over the course of a single cardiac cycle will also be available for integration into the overall mapping system. When synchronized in both spatial and temporal domain, this approach will solve some of the vexing problems of image registration, and will also allow higher anatomic resolution down to the submillimeter level.

Systems of the future will also display a wide variety of physiologic parameters beyond activation times and voltage. Future systems will be able to display any parametric process including vectors, strains, contraction patterns, or will even be based on the characteristics of an electrogram. Mapping capabilities demonstrating fractionation of electrograms are already being developed to disclose dominant frequencies. Any other parametric display will be limited only by whether that parameter can be measured with a sampling system.


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