Does the Use of an Automated Tool for Self-Reporting Mood by Patients With Bipolar Disorder Bias the Collected Data?

Michael Bauer, MD, PhD; Natalie Rasgon, MD, PhD; Paul Grof, MD, PhD; Laszlo Gyulai, MD; Tasha Glenn; Peter C. Whybrow, MD

In This Article


The demographic characteristics of the patients competing the ChronoRecord validation study were compared with those from published longitudinal studies of patients with bipolar disorder; these patients recorded data using paper-based, daily self-ratings on the NIMH LifeChart[7,27,28]; paper-based monthly retrospective self-ratings using a 7-point scale of symptom severity[29]; paper-based clinician ratings every 6 months for 5 years followed by yearly clinician ratings[5]; or a paper-based, 1-time survey[30] ( Table 1 ).

When the patients in the ChronoRecord validation study were grouped by severity of illness based on observer ratings, none of the demographic variables had a significant effect on the computerized self-ratings of mood by 2-way ANOVA testing ( Table 2 ). The model was significant in every case (P < .001), and as expected, the HAMD and the YMRS effects were also significant in every case. These findings were confirmed by the linear mixed-model estimates that included the individual-patient factor. In every case, the estimated intercept and coefficients for the values of both the HAMD and YMRS groups were significantly different from zero, whereas none of the coefficients for the demographic variable values were significantly different from zero by t-test. The coefficients for the HAMD group and the YMRS group are shown in Table 3 .


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