Vitamin K in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis and Arterial Calcification

Jamie Adams; Joseph Pepping

Disclosures

Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62(15):1574-1581. 

In This Article

Adverse Effects and Dosage of Vitamin K

Few adverse effects have been reported from oral vitamin K.[64,65,66] In the articles reviewed, there was no evidence of toxicity associated with the intake of phytonadione or menaquinone even at a daily dose of the latter of 45 mg.

Adequate intake of phylloquinone for the carboxylation of blood coagulation factors was recently set at 90 µg per day for adult women and 120 µg daily for adult men, based on median dietary intake data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

In the treatment of osteoporosis, Schurgers and Vermeer[20] suggested a µg phytonadione dosage of 1000 daily. Braam et al.[63] used the same daily dose to inhibit the loss of carotid artery elasticity. However, several trials of osteoporotic, postmenopausal women have used menaquinone dosages as high as 45 mg per day.[12,46,47,49]

Because of the very low toxicity of phytonadione and menaquinone, a 1000-µg daily dose of each is warranted. Doses of menaquinone exceeding 1 mg are not readily available in the United States at this time, but it is being produced in 15-mg capsules by a Canadian nutraceutical company.

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