Red Wine's Antioxidants Counteract Acute Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Cigarette Smoking in Healthy Nonsmokers

Christos Papamichael, MD; Emmanouil Karatzis, MD; Kalliopi Karatzi, MSc; Konstantinos Aznaouridis, MD; Theodoros Papaioannou, PhD; Athanassios Protogerou, MD; Kimon Stamatelopoulos, MD; Antonis Zampelas, PhD; John Lekakis, MD; Myron Mavrikakis, MD


Am Heart J. 2004;147(2) 

In This Article


All 16 subjects completed the study protocol according to the schedule.

Both phenol content (658 µg/100 mL of caffeic acid vs 650 µg/100mL of caffeic acid, respectively) and the types of phenolic substances were similar in both beverages, which indicates that the dealcoholization process did not affect the concentration of the wine's constituents.

Baseline artery diameter, FMD, and flow at rest were not significantly different among the 3 study days ( Table I ). In addition, the increases in flow during reactive hyperemia were similar.

Smoking 1 cigarette caused a reduction in FMD (P < .001), according to analysis of variance for repeated measures, that was statistically significant 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the inhalation of smoke compared to baseline levels (P < .001, P < .001, P = .043, respectively). However, simultaneous ingestion of either red wine or dealcoholized red wine with smoking did not lead to a change in FMD ( Table I ).

After smoking and drinking regular red wine, an increase in basal artery diameter was observed. This increase was found to be significant 30 minutes after ingestion (P = .047), showed a trend towards an increase at 60 minutes, and was again significant at 90 minutes (P = .015) compared to baseline levels.

FMD responses were found to be different after smoking 1 cigarette and smoking and ingesting regular red wine (P = .009), after analysis of variance for repeated measures. Differences were also observed in the response curves after smoking and smoking with concurrent consumption of dealcoholized red wine (P < .001). However, the FMD responses after smoking and drinking regular red wine and smoking and drinking dealcoholized red wine were not statistically different (Figure 1).

Effects of smoking 1 cigarette and simultaneously smoking and drinking either red wine or dealcoholized red wine on FMD (n = 16). *P < .001 versus baseline levels. † P < .05 versus baseline levels.

Incremental areas under the curve revealed a difference between smoking and smoking with concurrent consumption of regular red wine (P = .016), as well as between smoking and smoking with concurrent ingestion of dealcoholized red wine (P < .001).


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