Autoantibodies and Autoantigens in Autoimmune Hepatitis

Christian P. Strassburg, MD, Michael P. Manns, MD

Disclosures

Semin Liver Dis. 2002;22(4) 

In This Article

Additional Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis

The asialoglycoprotein receptor is a liver-specific glycoprotein of the cell membrane. Autoimmunity targeting this antigen is observed in 88% of AIH patients.[114] However, anti-ASGPR antibodies are also found in chronic hepatitis B and C, alcoholic liver disease, and PBC. The levels of anti-ASGPR antibodies vary according to inflammatory activity of the disease and could play a role as a marker to monitor therapeutic efficacy.[115] Anti-ASGPR appears to be a general marker of liver autoimmunity.

Anti-cytosol antibodies type 1 (anti-LC-1) antibodies are viewed as a second marker of AIH type 2, in which they have been detected in up to 50% of LKM-positive sera.[116] Other data indicate their occurrence in combination with ANA and SMA autoantibodies and also in chronic hepatitis C.[117] In contrast to LKM autoantibodies, LC-1 autoantibodies appear to correlate with disease activity. The molecular antigen target has been identified as formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase.[118] A clinical significance is not yet completely defined.

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) are detected 65 to 96% of sera.[119,120] pANCA are rare in AIH type 2. The role of ANCA in AIH is not clear, and their routine determination is not recommended.

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