Tuberculosis-Related Deaths Within a Well-Functioning DOTS Control Program

Maria de Lourdes García-García, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, Maria Cecilia García-Sancho, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Manuel Palacios-Martínez, Javier Fuentes, Midori Kato-Maeda, Miriam Bobadilla, Peter Small, José Sifuentes-Osornio

Disclosures

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(11) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

To describe the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths in a well-managed program in a low-HIV area, we analyzed data from a cohort of 454 pulmonary TB patients recruited between March 1995 and October 2000 in southern Mexico. Patients who were sputum acid-fast bacillus smear positive underwent clinical and mycobacteriologic evaluation (isolation, identification, drug-susceptibility testing, and IS6110-based genotyping and spoligotyping) and received treatment from the local directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) program. After an average of 2.3 years of follow-up, death was higher for clustered cases (28.6 vs. 7%, p=0.01). Cox analysis revealed that TB-related mortality hazard ratios included treatment default (8.9), multidrug resistance (5.7), recently transmitted TB (4.1), weight loss (3.9), and having less than 6 years of formal education[2]. In this community, TB is associated with high mortality rates.

In both humanistic and economic terms, the cost of deaths due to tuberculosis (TB) is staggering. In 1990 alone, approximately 2.5 million people died of TB, accounting for >25% of avoidable adult deaths in the developing world[1,2]. Directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS), a comprehensive approach to TB control, is one of the most cost-effective health interventions available[3,4]. In the context of a well functioning DOTS program, cure rates in excess of 80% can be expected. While these outcomes are assumed to decrease mortality rates, the detailed epidemiology of deaths in a well-functioning DOTS program by using modern molecular techniques has not been described.

Since 1995, we have conducted a population-based molecular epidemiologic study of TB in a health district in southern Mexico. Previous reports have documented the TB control program approaches World Health Organization benchmarks[5] and drug resistance is considerable and has an important negative impact on treatment outcomes[6]. We now report the short- and long- term mortality rates due to TB in this cohort of TB patients. These data suggest that, as has been described with other diseases, excess mortality may persist for months or years after treatment completion, default, or failure[7,8].

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