Rebecca P. Winsett, FNP, PhD, Judy Martin, FNP, PhD, Laura Reed, FNP, Carey Bateman, FNP


November 06, 2002


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem of immense proportions. The adverse sequelae of CKD include cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. CKD is defined as kidney damage for ≥ 3 months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 for ≥ 3 months, with or without kidney damage.[1] Unfortunately, CKD is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the United States, which has important implications for kidney transplantation.