A Controlled Evaluation of Staging Dietary Patterns to Reduce the Risk of Diabetes in African-American Women

Wendy Auslander, PHD, Debra Haire-Joshu, PHD, Cheryl Houston, PHD, RD, Chaie-Won Rhee, MSW, James Herbert Williams, PHD

Disclosures

Diabetes Care. 2002;25(5) 

In This Article

Results

Overall, participants in the treatment group reported a greater readiness to change their dietary patterns than those in the control group at the posttest assessment. Table 2 shows the percent of participants who reported being in the action stages (versus the pre-action stages) to perform each low-fat dietary pattern. X 2 tests of the treatment effect, controlling for pretest scores via logistic regression, were significant for all dietary patterns. These significant differences were maintained at follow-up assessment.

As shown in Table 3 , between-group comparisons of the knowledge of fat in diet at the posttest assessment revealed that there was a significant difference between the treatment and control groups (F[2,289] = 58.38, P < 0.0001). The treatment group had significantly higher scores than the control group, after adjusting for the baseline scores. This difference remained significant at the 3-month follow-up assessment (F[2,290] = 76.26, P < 0.0001). Skill-based knowledge as measured by the Knowledge of Label Reading Questionnaire also showed significant differences between groups at the posttest assessment (F[2,290] = 141.71, P < 0.0001) and remained significant at the follow-up assessment (F[2,291] = 133.49, P < 0.0001). Comparisons of the participants’ attitudes about diet and health revealed that there were no significant differences between the treatment and control groups at the postintervention or 3-month follow-up assessments.

The impact of the intervention indicated significant differences in the participants’ actual dietary behaviors ( Table 3 ). Assessment of the participants’ dietary behaviors showed that the treatment group reported significantly more low-fat dietary patterns (total score) compared with the control group at the posttest (F[2,286] = 97.71, P < 0.0001) and follow-up assessments (F[2,290] = 57.38, P < 0.0001). Analyses of the separate dietary patterns were consistent with the results of the total scale, except for one pattern: there was no significant difference between the treatment and control groups in "replacement" at the posttreatment and follow-up assessments.

As shown in Table 3 , dietary fat intake measured by the FFQ at the posttest assessment revealed a significant difference between the treatment and control groups. At posttest, the intervention was effective in reducing fat intake, as measured by the percent of calories from total fat (F[2,290] = 33.96, P < 0.0001). The post hoc t tests indicated that the treatment group reported significantly less fat intake than the control group, and that the differences were maintained at the follow-up assessment (F[2,291] = 29.52, P < 0.0001). The actual percent of calories from fat for the treatment group was reduced from 35.9% at pretest to 32.1% at posttest and 32.3% at follow-up, versus the same values for the control group (36, 35.6, and 34.5%, respectively).

Fat intake, as measured by the percent of calories from saturated fat, was also significantly reduced in the treatment group from pre- to posttest assessment (F[2,290] = 30.85, P < 0.0001). The post hoc t tests showed that the treatment group reported significantly less fat intake than the control group and that these differences were maintained at follow-up (F[2,291] = 25.59, P < 0.0001). The total daily energy intake of the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group from the pre- to posttest assessment (F[2,290] = 46.96, P < 0.0001) and at follow-up (F[2,291] = 30.75, P < 0.0001). Despite significant reductions in fat intake, results indicated that no significant group differences were detected in the weight and BMI of the participants.

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