Feline Host Range of Canine parvovirus: Recent Emergence of New Antigenic Types in Cats

Yasuhiro Ikeda, Kazuya Nakamura, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yukinobu Tohya, Eiji Takahashi,Masami Mochizuki

Disclosures

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(4) 

In This Article

Emergence of New Antigenic Types of CPV (CPV-2c) in Cats

Feline parvoviruses continue to evolve. CPV-2a and 2b have been detected not only from domestic cats but also from wild felids worldwide [11,34]. Steinel et al. [34] report the detection of CPV-2b-type viral DNA from one fecal sample of a Namibian farmed-raised cheetah and the tissue sections of four captive cheetahs in the United States. CPV-2a-type sequence was also found in the fecal sample of the Siberian tiger from a German zoo [34].

During 1996 to 1997, CPV-2a/2b-related viruses were isolated from Asian small wildcats, leopard cats (Felis bengalensis), in Vietnam and Taiwan [11,35]. These viruses were designated as leopard cat parvovirus (LCPV).Three of the six isolates were demonstrated to be new antigenic types of CPV; the other three isolates were essentially identical to CPV-2a or 2b. Subsequently, the new antigenic type viruses were shown to have a natural mutation of VP2 in common [11] (residue 300 Gly to an Asp, Table 1 ), which results in remarkable changes of their antigenic properties. The new antigenic type, characterized by the loss of the VP2 epitopes recognized by the reference MAbs A3B10, B6D5, and C1D1, is currently designated as CPV-2c (Figure 1) [11]. The reactivity against MAb B4A2, which distinguishes CPV-2b from the other serotypes, further classifies the CPV-2c-type isolates into two serotypes, CPV-2c(a) and CPV-2c(b) (Figure 1).

CPV-2c-type viruses have been isolated only from leopard cats but not from domestic cats in the same area. Since the phylogenetic analysis indicated that CPV-2a and CPV-2b-type viruses were likely to evolve to CPV-2c(a) and CPV-2c(b)-type viruses, respectively, the mutation at the residue 300 Gly to Asp is probably ascribed to the adaptation of CPV-2a/2b-type viruses to leopard cats. Similar to the emergence of CPV-2a and CPV-2b, CPV-2c has lost neutralizing epitopes compared with the former serotypes, CPV-2a and 2b.

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