Feline Host Range of Canine parvovirus: Recent Emergence of New Antigenic Types in Cats

Yasuhiro Ikeda, Kazuya Nakamura, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yukinobu Tohya, Eiji Takahashi,Masami Mochizuki

Disclosures

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(4) 

In This Article

Hypotheses on the Ancestor of CPV-2

Retrospective investigations to detect CPV antibodies in sera collected from dogs or related canids showed that the first positive titers were present in European dogs around 1975, while the first positive sera in the USA, Japan, and Australia were seen in early 1978. Various hypotheses on the mechanism of virus evolution in this group have been developed. The most widely accepted hypothesis is the emergence of CPV-2 from a variant of FPLV or of a closely related virus infecting another carnivore, such as mink or foxes [9,10].

Several intriguing observations support the latter hypothesis. First, based on the sequence analyses of the capsid VP-2 and the nonstructural NS1 genes, MEV is closer to CPV-2 than FPLV [9,11]. More importantly, the virus isolated from an Arctic fox from Finland (blue fox parvovirus, BFPV) in 1983 appeared to be an intermediate between the FPLV- and CPV-type viruses. BFPV had three synonymous nucleotide changes in the VP2 gene that were specific for the canine sequence [12] (Figure 2), while the fox virus was classified antigenically as typical MEV-2-type [13] (Figure 1). These findings indicate that some animals in the family Canidae, such as mink or foxes, which are susceptible to FPLV-like viruses, might play a role as a reservoir for the ancestor of CPV. Recently, Truyen et al. [14] reported that the intermediate parvovirus sequence from a German red fox was CPV-2-like but had one FPLV-specific nonsynonymous substitution. This suggests that German red foxes could harbor the direct ancestor of CPV, although it remains possible that the intermediate red fox parvovirus emerged from conventional CPV-2 by one point natural mutation (Figure 3).

The apparent evolutionary processes of feline parvoviruses.

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