Feline Host Range of Canine parvovirus: Recent Emergence of New Antigenic Types in Cats

Yasuhiro Ikeda, Kazuya Nakamura, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yukinobu Tohya, Eiji Takahashi,Masami Mochizuki

Disclosures

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(4) 

In This Article

Emergence of Mink enteritis virus and CPV Type 2 (CPV-2)

Infection by Feline parvovirus was thought only to occur in cats (Feline panleukopenia virus, FPLV) or raccoons until the mid-1940s, when a similar disease with a mortality of up to 80% was observed in infected mink kits in Canada [1]. The disease caused by the mink agent, named Mink enteritis virus (MEV), was thereafter observed throughout many regions of the world [2]. Since MEV was indistinguishable from FPLV by conventional methods such as serum-neutralization assay, MEV isolates have been differentiated from FPLV primarily on the basis of the host from which they are isolated. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we now classify FPLV and MEV isolates into three antigenic types, FPLV and MEV type 1 (MEV-1) group, MEV type 2 (MEV-2), and MEV type 3 [2,3] (Figure 1). MEV-1 and MEV-2 have repeatedly been isolated from the mink in the United States, Europe, Japan, and China ([2,3]; Y. Ikeda and M. Mochizuki, unpub. data).

Antigenic profile of feline parvoviruses, including Canine parvovirus 2c (CPV-2c) types. Subtype-specific monoclonal antibodies are used to type the viruses in a hemagglutinin-inhibition test (HI). Mink enteritis virus (MEV-3) shows similar patterns to MEV-2 [2]. FPLV = Feline panleukopenia virus; BFPV = blue fox parvovirus.

In the late 1970s, another virus emerged in dogs [4,5]. The new virus, designated CPV-2 to distinguish it from an unrelated Canine parvovirus (Canine minute virus), spread around the world within a few months [6,7]. CPV-2 spread rapidly, killing thousands of dogs. Polyclonal antibody and in vivo cross-protection studies soon showed that CPV and FPLV were closely related antigenically, while CPV-2 and FPLV were distinguishable from each other when examined with a panel of MAbs (Figure 1). Subsequent extensive genetic analysis of numerous CPV-2, FPLV, and MEV isolates showed that the viruses form two distinct clusters represented by FPLV-type viruses from cats (FPLV), raccoons, and mink (MEV), and by CPV-type viruses from dogs and raccoon dogs. At least 11 conserved nucleotide differences (7 nonsynonymous and 4 synonymous changes) were seen between CPV-2 isolates and FPLV-type viruses in the capsid VP2 sequence; in contrast, CPV and FPLV isolates differ in <2% of their genomic DNA sequences [8] (Figure 2; Table 1 ).

Conserved nucleotide differences between the Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV)- and Canine parvovirus (CPV)-type viruses. Nucleotide positions in the VP2 gene are numbered above the sequences; BFPV = blue fox parvovirus.

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