Feline Host Range of Canine parvovirus: Recent Emergence of New Antigenic Types in Cats

Yasuhiro Ikeda, Kazuya Nakamura, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yukinobu Tohya, Eiji Takahashi,Masami Mochizuki

Disclosures

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(4) 

In This Article

Pathogenic Potential of CPV-2c

Since feline parvoviruses shed in the feces survive in the environment for up to several months, a fecal-oral route is considered to be the predominant means of their transmission. Although CPV-2c-type viruses have been isolated only from leopard cats [13,38], the new serotype viruses will likely spread to domestic cat and dog populations. Nakamura et al. [38] compared the virulence between FPLV, CPV-2a, and CPV-2c in SPF cats. In this experiment, diverse pathogenicity of the CPV-2a for individual cats was observed. One cat had symptoms frequently associated with parvovirus infection, including leukopenia and diarrhea; the other cats remained asymptomatic. One cat showed no evidence of infection. In contrast to the results obtained with CPV-2a-inoculated animals, all cats inoculated with CPV-2c developed diseases, although the symptoms were relatively milder than those observed in FPLV-inoculated cats. These data indicate that CPV-2c and CPV-2a both have the potential to cause diseases in cats, with some variations of symptoms. CPV-2c appears to be more infectious in cats than CPV-2a and to induce a higher frequency of disease than CPV-2a, although the numbers of cats tested in the experiment were small. Since CPV-2a did not produce any clinical symptoms in the infected SPF cats, yet demonstrated strong virulence in the infected conventional cats [31], it is also possible that CPV-2c infection results in severe illness in conventional cats.

The virulence of CPV-2c in dogs remains to be determined. The most probable hypothesis is that the new antigenic viruses can infect dogs and cause some illness, as seen in the emergence of CPV-2a and 2b in 1980s. However, the CPV-2c-type viruses may also have lost their canine host range. The latter hypothesis is based on the fact that CPV-2, which is believed to have emerged from FPLV-related viruses, fails to infect cats. The pathogenic potential of CPV-2c in dogs needs to be addressed (Figure 3).

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