Effects of Antimanic Mood-Stabilizing Drugs on Fetuses, Neonates, and Nursing Infants

Mohammad Masud Iqbal, MD, MPH, MSPH, DTM; Sai Prakash Gundlapalli, MD, William G. Ryan, MD, Thad Ryals, MD, Birmingham, Ala; Terry E. Passman, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, the Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and the Department of Epidemiology and International Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine; and the Harbor Unit, Thomas Hospital, Fairhope, Ala

South Med J. 2001;94(3) 

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Risk to Fetus

In animals. The potential reproductive toxicity of thiothixene has not been adequately evaluated in animals. One reproductive study in mice and rabbits given 90 mg/kg/day showed a decrease in conception rate and litter size and an increase in resorption rate,[190] but revealed no teratogenicity.[191]

In humans. To date, no adequate and well-controlled studies on thiothixene therapy during pregnancy have been done. However, this drug should be used during pregnancy only when the physician believes the expected benefits exceed the possible risks to the fetus.

Risk to Infant During Breast-Feeding

There are no reports on the pharmacokinetics of thiothixene in relation to breast milk nor reports on the effects of this drug on nursing infants. Hence, caution is advised, since chemically related phenothiazines are excreted in breast milk and are reported to cause tardive dyskinesia and possible drowsiness in the breast-fed infant.[190]


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