Medication Errors in United States Hospitals

C. A. Bond, PharmD, FASHP, FCCP, Cynthia L. Raehl, PharmD, FASHP, FCCP, and Todd Franke, PhD


Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(9) 

In This Article

Appendix. Definitions and Groupings Used in Analysis

New England: Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont
Mid-Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania
South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia
East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin
East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee
West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota
West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas
Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming
Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington

Small: average daily census (ADC) < 200
Medium: ADC 200-399
Large: ADC > 400

Nonteaching hospital: not associated with a college of pharmacy, school of medicine, school of nursing, allied health care program, master of science (M.S.) or master of business administration (M.B.A.) degree program.

Nonpharmacy teaching hospital: affiliated with a school of medicine, school of nursing, allied health care program, M.S. or M.B.A. program but not with a college of pharmacy.
Pharmacy teaching hospital: affiliated with a college of pharmacy degree program [bachelor of science (B.S.), M.S., doctor of pharmacy (Pharm D.)]

Decentralized: dispensing functions supported mostly by a central pharmacy, satellite pharmacies, or mobile carts.
Centralized: pharmacists occasionally may visit patient care units but not on a daily basis.
Centralized with ward visit: pharmacists visit patient care units at least once/day.Pharmacy director's education
B.S.: pharmacy degree only.
M.B.A., Ph.D., nonpharmacy master's: directors with one of these degrees also may have completed a B.S. in pharmacy.
M.S. in pharmacy: directors also may have completed a B.S. in pharmacy or Pharm D.
Pharm D.: directors also may have a B.S.

Government, nonfederal: state, country, city-county, or hospital district or authority
Nongovernment nonprofit: church-operated or other
Investor-owned (for-profit): individual, partnership, or corporation
Government, federal: Air Force, Army, Navy, Public Health Service, Veterans Administration, Public Health Service, Indian Service, Department of Justice


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