Principles of Bone Healing

Iain H. Kalfas, MD, FACS Department of Neurosurgery, Section of Spinal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio

Neurosurg Focus. 2001;10(4) 

In This Article


An understanding of the basic science of bone healing is critical to the consistent success of spinal fusion surgery. Although great advances have been made in the field of spinal instrumentation, it is only a solid osseous union that will ensure long-term spinal stability. Selection of the most appropriate bone graft material as well as careful attention to the principles of bone healing can greatly facilitate the potential for clinical success.

Abbreviation used in this paper: BMP = bone morphogenetic protein.


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