Stage Description GFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 1 Kidney damage with normal or increased GFR >/= 90 2 Kidney damage with mildly decreased GFR 60-89 3 Moderately decreased GFR 30-59 4 Severely decreased GFR 15-29 5 Kidney failure < 15 or dialysis
GFR, glomerular filtration rate
*Chronic kidney disease is defined as either kidney damage or GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for >/= 3 months. Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine tests or imaging studies.
2-year Mortality (%) 2-year Incidence of ESRD (%) No anemia, CHF, or CKD 7.7 0.1 Anemia 16.6 0.2 CHF 26.1 0.2 CHF and anemia 34.6 0.3 CKD 16.4 2.6 CKD and anemia 27.3 5.4 CHF and CKD 38.4 3.5 CHF, CKD, and anemia* 45.6 5.9
CHF, congestive heart failure; CKD, chronic kidney disease
*Note the additive effect of anemia, CHF, and CKD on the mortality rate and on the incidence of ESRD.
Use small-volume pediatric tubes and microchemistry techniques Minimize use of tubing that requires wasting blood Eliminate excessive or unnecessary routine daily labs Collect blood specimens for potential subsequent use Avoid excessive blood draws from arterial catheters Initiate stress ulcer prophylaxis Utilize preoperative erythropoietin alfa