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Tables for:
Expanding Role of Erythropoietin

[Medscape Pharmacists 5(1), 2004. © 2004 Medscape]


Table 1. Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease[1]


StageDescriptionGFR (mL/min/1.73m2)
1Kidney damage with normal or increased GFR>/= 90
2Kidney damage with mildly decreased GFR60-89
3Moderately decreased GFR30-59
4Severely decreased GFR15-29
5Kidney failure< 15 or dialysis

GFR, glomerular filtration rate
*Chronic kidney disease is defined as either kidney damage or GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for >/= 3 months. Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine tests or imaging studies.


Table 2. Two-Year Mortality and Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)[3]


 2-year Mortality (%)2-year Incidence of ESRD (%)
No anemia, CHF, or CKD7.70.1
Anemia16.60.2
CHF26.10.2
CHF and anemia34.60.3
CKD16.42.6
CKD and anemia27.35.4
CHF and CKD38.43.5
CHF, CKD, and anemia*45.65.9

CHF, congestive heart failure; CKD, chronic kidney disease
*Note the additive effect of anemia, CHF, and CKD on the mortality rate and on the incidence of ESRD.


Table 3. Strategies for Limiting Blood Loss in the ICU


Use small-volume pediatric tubes and microchemistry techniques
Minimize use of tubing that requires wasting blood
Eliminate excessive or unnecessary routine daily labs
Collect blood specimens for potential subsequent use
Avoid excessive blood draws from arterial catheters
Initiate stress ulcer prophylaxis
Utilize preoperative erythropoietin alfa