References for:
Diagnosis of Endometriosis

[Semin Reprod Med 21(2):193-207, 2003. © 2003 Thieme Medical Publishers]

  1. Brosens I, Puttemans P, Deprest J. Appearances of endometriosis. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1993;7:741-757
  2. Strathy JH, Molgaard CA, Coulam CB, Melton LJD. Endometriosis and infertility: a laparoscopic study of endometriosis among fertile and infertile women. Fertil Steril 1982; 38:667-672
  3. Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Poindexter AN 3rd. Epidemiology of endometriosis among parous women. Obstet Gynecol 1995; 85:983-992
  4. Moen MH, Schei B. Epidemiology of endometriosis in a Norwegian county. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1997;76: 559-562
  5. Mahmood TA, Templeton A. Prevalence and genesis of endometriosis. Hum Reprod 1991;6:544-549
  6. Koninckx PR. Biases in the endometriosis literature. Illustrated by 20 years of endometriosis research in Leuven. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1998;81:259-271
  7. Norwood GE. Sterility and fertility in women with endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1960;3:456
  8. Olive DL, Haney AF: Endometriosis. In: DeCherney AH, ed. Reproductive Failure. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1986:153-201
  9. Nunley WC, Kitchin JD. Congenital atresia of the uterine cervix with pelvic endometriosis. Arch Surg 1980;115:757-758
  10. Tang LC, Ngan HY, Tang MH. Rudimentary uterine horn with adenomyosis and pelvic endometriosis in a 23-year-old girl. J Adolesc Health Care 1986;7:265-267
  11. Olive DL, Henderson DY. Endometriosis and mullerian anomalies. Obstet Gynecol 1987;69:412-415
  12. Ugur M, Turan C, Mungan T, et al. Endometriosis in association with mullerian anomalies. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1995;40:261-264
  13. Goldstein DP, deCholnoky C, Emans SJ, Leventhal JM. Laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of pelvic pain in adolescents. J Reprod Med 1980;24:251-256
  14. Chatman DL, Ward AB. Endometriosis in adolescents. J Reprod Med 1982;27:156-160
  15. Reese KA, Reddy S, Rock JA. Endometriosis in an adolescent population: the Emory experience. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 1996;9:125-128
  16. Cramer DW, Wilson E, Stillman RJ, et al. The relation of endometriosis to menstrual characteristics, smoking, and exercise. JAMA 1986;255:1904-1908
  17. Matorras R, Rodiquez F, Pijoan JI, et al. Epidemiology of endometriosis in infertile women. Fertil Steril 1995;63:34-38
  18. Parazzini F, Ferraroni M, Fedele L, et al. Pelvic endometriosis: reproductive and menstrual risk factors at different stages in Lombardy, northern Italy. J Epidemiol Community Health 1995;49:61-64
  19. Gruppo Italiano plSde. Risk factors for pelvic endometriosis in women with pelvic pain or infertility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999;83:195-199
  20. Djursing H, Petersen K, Weberg E. Symptomatic postmenopausal endometriosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1981; 60:529-530
  21. Matorras R, Elorriaga MA, Pijoan JI, Ramon O, Rodriguez-Escudero FJ. Recurrence of endometriosis in women with bilateral adnexectomy (with or without total hysterectomy) who received hormone replacement therapy. Fertil Steril 2002;77:303-308
  22. Chinegwundoh FI, Ryan P, Luesley T, Chan SY. Renal and diaphragmatic endometriosis de novo associated with hormone replacement therapy. J Urol 1995;153:380-381
  23. Wentz AC. Premenstrual spotting: its association with endometriosis but not luteal phase inadequacy. Fertil Steril 1980;33:605-607
  24. Signorello LB, Harlow BL, Cramer DW, Spiegelman D, Hill JA. Epidemiologic determinants of endometriosis: a hospital-based case-control study. Ann Epidemiol 1997;7: 267-741
  25. Moen MH. Is a long period without childbirth a risk factor for developing endometriosis? Hum Reprod 1991;6:1404-1407
  26. Malinak LR, Buttram VC Jr, Elias S, Simpson JL. Heritage aspects of endometriosis. II. Clinical characteristics of familial endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980;137:332-337
  27. Simpson JL, Elias S, Malinak LR, Buttram VC Jr. Heritable aspects of endometriosis. I. Genetic studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980;137:327-331
  28. Kennedy S, Mardon H, Barlow D. Familial endometriosis. J Assist Reprod Genet 1995;12:32-34
  29. Kennedy S. The genetics of endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999;82:129-133
  30. Kennedy S, Bennett S, Weeks DE. Affected sib-pair analysis in endometriosis. Hum Reprod Update 2001;7:411-418
  31. Moen MH. Endometriosis in monozygotic twins. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1994;73:59-62
  32. Hadfield RM, Mardon HJ, Barlow DH, Kennedy SH. Endometriosis in monozygotic twins. Fertil Steril 1997;68:941-942
  33. Woodworth SH, Singh M, Yussman MA, et al. A prospective study on the association between red hair color and endometriosis in infertile patients. Fertil Steril 1995;64:651-652
  34. Hornstein MD, Thomas PP, Sober AJ, et al. Association between endometriosis, dysplastic naevi and history of melanoma in women of reproductive age. Hum Reprod 1997;12: 143-145
  35. Cramer DW, Hornstein MD, Ng WG, Barbieri RL. Endometriosis associated with the N314D mutation of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT). Mol Hum Reprod 1996;2:149-152
  36. Georgiou I, Syrrou M, Bouba I, et al. Association of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1999;72:164-166
  37. Nakago S, Hadfield RM, Zondervan KT, et al. Association between endometriosis and N-acetyl transferase 2 polymorphisms in a UK population. Mol Hum Reprod 2001;7: 1079-1083
  38. Pauerstein CJ. Clinical presentation and diagnosis. In: Schenken RS, ed. Endometriosis. Contemporary Concepts in Clinical Management. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1989: 127-144
  39. el-Yahia AW. Laparoscopic evaluation of apparently normal infertile women. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;34:440-442
  40. Murphy AA. Clinical aspects of endometriosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002;955:1-10; discussion 34-16, 396-406
  41. Kresch AJ, Seifer DB, Sachs LB, Barrese I. Laparoscopy in 100 women with chronic pelvic pain. Obstet Gynecol 1984; 64:672-674
  42. Rapkin AJ. Adhesions and pelvic pain: a retrospective study. Obstet Gynecol 1986;68:13-15
  43. Mahmood TA, Templeton AA, Thomson L, Fraser C. Menstrual symptoms in women with pelvic endometriosis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1991;98:558-563
  44. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dE. Relationship between stage, site and morphological characteristics of pelvic endometriosis and pain. Hum Reprod 2001;16:2668-2671
  45. Davis GD, Thillet E, Lindemann J. Clinical characteristics of adolescent endometriosis. J Adolesc Health 1993;14:362-368
  46. Williams TJ, Pratt JH. Endometriosis in 1,000 consecutive celiotomies: incidence and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1977;129:245-250
  47. Vercellini P, Trespidi L, De Giorgi O, et al. Endometriosis and pelvic pain: relation to disease stage and localization. Fertil Steril 1996;65:299-304
  48. Fedele L, Bianchi S, Bocciolone L, Di Nola G, Parazzini F. Pain symptoms associated with endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:767-769
  49. Muzii L, Marana R, Pedulla S, Catalano GF, Mancuso S. Correlation between endometriosis-associated dysmenorrhea and the presence of typical or atypical lesions. Fertil Steril 1997;68:19-22
  50. Fedele L, Parazzini F, Bianchi S, Arcaini L, Candiani GB. Stage and localization of pelvic endometriosis and pain. Fertil Steril 1990;53:155-158
  51. Perper MM, Nezhat F, Goldstein H, Nezhat CH, Nezhat C. Dysmenorrhea is related to the number of implants in endometriosis patients. Fertil Steril 1995;63:500-503
  52. Vercellini P, Bocciolone L, Vendola N, et al. Peritoneal endometriosis. Morphologic appearance in women with chronic pelvic pain. J Reprod Med 1991;36:533-536
  53. Demco L. Mapping the source and character of pain due to endometriosis by patient-assisted laparoscopy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1998;5:241-245
  54. Muzii L, Marana R, Brunetti L, et al. Atypical endometriosis revisited: clinical and biochemical evaluation of the different forms of superficial implants. Fertil Steril 2000;74: 739-742
  55. Stovall DW, Bowser LM, Archer DF, Guzick DS. Endometriosis-associated pelvic pain: evidence for an association between the stage of disease and a history of chronic pelvic pain. Fertil Steril 1997;68:13-18
  56. Koninckx PR, Meuleman C, Demeyere S, Lesaffre E, Cornillie FJ. Suggestive evidence that pelvic endometriosis is a progressive disease, whereas deeply infiltrating endometriosis is associated with pelvic pain. Fertil Steril 1991;55: 759-765
  57. Porpora M, Koninckx P, Piazze J, et al. Correlation between endometriosis and pelvic pain. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1999;6:429-434
  58. Ranney B. Emergency operations due to hemoperitoneum. Obstet Gynecol 1970;36:437-442
  59. Rovito P, Gittleman M. Two cases of endometrioma in cesarean scars. Surgery 1986;100:118-120
  60. Brenner C, Wohlgemuth S. Scar endometriosis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1990;170:538-540
  61. Wolf Y, Haddad R, Werbin N, Skornick Y, Kaplan O. Endometriosis in abdominal scars: a diagnostic pitfall. Am Surg 1996;62:1042-1044
  62. Dwivedi AJ, Agrawal SN, Silva YJ. Abdominal wall endometriomas. Dig Dis Sci 2002;47:456-461
  63. Macafee CH, Greer HL. Intestinal endometriosis: a report of 29 cases and a survey of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 1960;67:539-543
  64. Prystowsky JB, Stryker SJ, Ujiki GT, Poticha SM. Gastrointestinal endometriosis: incidence and indications for resection. Arch Surg 1988;123:855-858
  65. Shah M, Tager D, Feller E. Intestinal endometriosis masquerading as common digestive disorders. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:977-980
  66. Azzena A, Litta P, Ferrara A, et al. Rectosigmoid endometriosis: diagnosis and surgical management. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1998;25:94-96
  67. Yantiss RK, Clement PB, Young RH. Endometriosis of the intestinal tract: a study of 44 cases of a disease that may cause diverse challenges in clinical and pathologic evaluation. Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:445-454
  68. Cravello L, D'Ercole C, Le Treut YP, Blanc B. Hepatic endometriosis: a case report. Fertil Steril 1996;66:657-659
  69. Skor AB, Warren MM, Mueller EO Jr. Endometriosis of bladder. Urology 1977;9:689-692
  70. Sircus SI, Sant GR, Ucci AA Jr. Bladder detrusor endometriosis mimicking interstitial cystitis. Urology 1988;32:339- 342
  71. Donnez J, Spada F, Squifflet J, Nisolle M. Bladder endometriosis must be considered as bladder adenomyosis. Fertil Steril 2000;74:1175-1181
  72. Donnez J, Nisolle M, Squifflet J. Ureteral endometriosis: a complication of rectovaginal endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules. Fertil Steril 2002;77:32-37
  73. Slasky BS, Siewers RD, Lecky JW, Zajko A, Burkholder JA. Catamenial pneumothorax: the roles of diaphragmatic defects and endometriosis. AJR 1982;138:639-643
  74. Velasco Oses A, Hilario Rodriguez E, Santamaria Garcia JL, et al. Catamenial pneumothorax with pleural endometriosis and hemoptysis. Diagn Gynecol Obstet 1982;4:295-299
  75. Elliot DL, Barker AF, Dixon LM. Catamenial hemoptysis. New methods of diagnosis and therapy. Chest 1985;87:687- 688
  76. Rychlik DF, Bieber EJ. Thoracic endometriosis syndrome resembling pulmonary embolism. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2001;8:445-448
  77. Cooper MJ, Russell P, Gallagher PJ. Diaphragmatic endometriosis. Med J Aust 1999;171:142-143
  78. Redwine DB. Diaphragmatic endometriosis: diagnosis, surgical management, and long-term results of treatment. Fertil Steril 2002;77:288-296
  79. Thibodeau LL, Prioleau GR, Manuelidis EE, Merino MJ, Heafner MD. Cerebral endometriosis. Case report. J Neurosurg 1987;66:609-610
  80. Moeser P, Donofrio PD, Karstaedt N, Bechtold R, Greiss FC Jr. MRI findings of sciatic endometriosis. Clin Imag 1990;14:64-66
  81. Descamps P, Cottier JP, Barre I, et al. Endometriosis of the sciatic nerve: case report demonstrating the value of MR imaging. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1995;58:199-202
  82. Fedele L, Bianchi S, Raffaelli R, Zanconato G, Zanette G. Phantom endometriosis of the sciatic nerve. Fertil Steril 1999;72:727-729
  83. Silver MD, Jokl P. Endometriosis of the pelvis presenting as hip pain: a case report. Clin Orthop 1999;368:207-211
  84. Koninckx PR, Meuleman C, Oosterlynck D, Cornille FJ. Diagnosis of deep endometriosis by clinical examination during menstruation and plasma CA-125 concentration. Fertil Steril 1996;65:280-287
  85. Chapron C, Dubuisson JB, Pansini V, et al. Routine clinical examination is not sufficient for diagnosing and locating deeply infiltrating endometriosis. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2002;9:115-119
  86. Propst AM, Storti K, Barbieri RL. Lateral cervical displacement is associated with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1998;70: 568-570
  87. Barbieri RL. Stenosis of the external cervical os: an association with endometriosis in women with chronic pelvic pain. Fertil Steril 1998;70:571-573
  88. Matorras R, Rodriguez F, Pijoan JI, et al. Are there any clinical signs and symptoms that are related to endometriosis in infertile women? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174: 620-623
  89. Ripps BA, Martin DC. Correlation of focal pelvic tenderness with implant dimension and stage of endometriosis. J Reprod Med 1992;37:620-624
  90. Eskenazi B, Warner M, Bonsignore L, et al. Validation study of nonsurgical diagnosis of endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2001; 76:929-935
  91. Barbieri RL, Niloff JM, Bast RC, et al. Elevated serum concentration of CA-125 in patients with advanced endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1986;45:630-634
  92. Pittaway D, Fayez J. The use of Ca-125 in the diagnosis and management of endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1986;46:790- 795
  93. Abu-Musa A, Takahashi K, Nagata H, et al. CA-125 in menstrual discharge in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;37:111-114
  94. Koninckx PR, Riittinen L, Seppala M, Cornillie FJ. CA-125 and placental protein 14 concentrations in plasma and peritoneal fluid of women with deeply infiltrating pelvic endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1992;57:523-530
  95. Hornstein MD, Thomas PP, Gleason RE, Barbieri RL. Menstrual cyclicity of CA-125 in patient with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1992;58:279-283
  96. O'Shaughnessy A, Check JH, Nowroozi K, Lurie D. CA-125 levels measured in different phases of the menstrual cycle in screening for endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 1993; 81:99-103
  97. Hornstein MD, Harlow BL, Thomas PP, Check JH. Use of a new CA 125 assay in the diagnosis of endometriosis. Hum Reprod 1995;10:932-934
  98. Pittaway DE. Assay characteristics of the immunoradiometric method for CA-125. Fertil Steril 1989;51:348-350
  99. Mol BW, Bayram N, Lijmer JG, et al. The performance of CA-125 measurement in the detection of endometriosis: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 1998;70:1101-1108
  100. Pittaway DE, Fayez JA. Serum CA-125 antigen levels increase during menses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;156:75-76
  101. Bon GG, Kenemans P, Dekker JJ, et al. Fluctuations in CA 125 and CA 15-3 serum concentrations during spontaneous ovulatory cycles. Hum Reprod 1999;14:566-570
  102. Hompes PG, Koninckx PR, Kennedy S, et al. Serum CA-125 concentrations during midfollicular phase, a clinically useful and reproducible marker in diagnosis of advanced endometriosis. Clin Chem 1996;42:1871-1874
  103. Pittaway DE, Douglas JW. Serum CA-125 in women with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain. Fertil Steril 1989;51: 68-70
  104. Cheng YM, Wang ST, Chou CY. Serum CA-125 in preoperative patients at high risk for endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:375-380
  105. Pittaway DE. The use of serial CA 125 concentrations to monitor endometriosis in infertile women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163:1032-1035
  106. Pittaway DE, Rondinone D, Miller KA, Barnes K. Clinical evaluation of Ca-125 concentrations as prognostic factor for pregnancy in infertile women with surgically treated endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1995;64:321-324
  107. Chen FP, Soong YK, Lee N, Lo SK. The use of serum CA-125 as a marker for endometriosis in patients with dysmenorrhea for monitoring therapy and for recurrence of endometriosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77:665-670
  108. Pittaway DE, Fayez JA, Douglas JW. Serum CA-125 in the evaluation of benign adnexal cysts. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;157:1426-1428
  109. Koninckx PR, Muyldermans M, Moerman P, et al. CA 125 concentrations in ovarian "chocolate" cyst fluid can differentiate an endometriotic cyst from a cystic corpus luteum. Hum Reprod 1992;7:1314-1317
  110. Muscatello R, Cucinelli F, Fulghesu A, et al. Multiple serum marker assay in the diagnosis of endometriosis. Gynecol Endocrinol 1992;6:265-269
  111. Molo MW, Kelly M, Radwanska E, Binor Z. Preoperative serum CA-125 and CA-72 in predicting endometriosis in infertility patients. J Reprod Med 1994;39:964-966
  112. Abrao MS, Podgaec S, Pinotti JA, de Oliveira RM. Tumor markers in endometriosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1999;66: 19-22
  113. Telimaa S, Kauppila A, Rönnberg L, Suikkari A, Seppala M. Elevated serum levels of endometrial secretory protein PP14 in patients with advanced endometriosis: suppression by treatment with danazol and high-dose medroxyprogesterone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:866-871
  114. Medl M, Ogris E, Peters-Engl C, et al. Serum levels of the tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor in patients with endometriosis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104:78-81
  115. Abrao MS, Podgaec S, Filho BM, et al. The use of biochemical markers in the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2523-2527
  116. Wild RA, Hirisave V, Bianco A, Podczaski ES, Demers LM. Endometrial antibodies versus CA-125 for the detection of endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1991;55:90-94
  117. Wild RA, Hirisave V, Podczaski ES, et al. Autoantibodies associated with endometriosis: can their detection predict presence of the disease? Obstet Gynecol 1991;77:927- 931
  118. Switchenko AC, Kauffman RS, Becker M. Are there antiendometrial antibodies in sera of women with endometriosis? Fertil Steril 1991;56:235-241
  119. Fernandez-Shaw S, Kennedy SH, Hicks BR, et al. Anti-endometrial antibodies in women measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hum Reprod 1996;11:1180-1184
  120. Friedman H, Vogelzang RL, Mendelson EB, Neiman HL, Cohen M. Endometriosis detection by US with laparoscopic correlation. Radiology 1985;157:217-220
  121. Alexiadis G, Lambropoulou M, Deftereos S, et al. Abdominal wall endometriosis-ultrasound research: a diagnostic problem. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2001;28:121-122
  122. Balleyguier C, Chapron C, Dubuisson JB, et al. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and transvaginal ultrasonography in diagnosing bladder endometriosis. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2002;9:15-23
  123. Athey PA, Diment DD. The spectrum of sonographic findings in endometriomas. J Ultrasound Med 1989;8: 487-491
  124. Patel M, Feldstein V, Dillon C, Lipson S, Filly R. Endometriomas: diagnostic performance of US. Radiology 1999;210:739-745
  125. Kurjak A, Kupesic S. Scoring system for prediction of ovarian endometriosis based on transvaginal color and pulsed Doppler sonography. Fertil Steril 1994;62:81-88
  126. Alcazar JL, Laparte C, Jurado M, Lopez-Garcia G. The role of transvaginal ultrasonography combined with color velocity imaging and pulsed Doppler in the diagnosis of endometrioma. Fertil Steril 1997;67:487-491
  127. Guerriero S, Ajossa S, Mais V, et al. The diagnosis of endometriomas using colour Doppler energy imaging. Hum Reprod 1998;13:1691-1695
  128. Pascual M. Role of color Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of endometriotic cyst. J Ultrasound Med 2000;19: 695-699
  129. Alcazar J. Transvaginal colour Doppler in patients with ovarian endometriomas and pelvic pain. Hum Reprod 2001; 16:2672-2675
  130. Hata T, Yanagihara T, Hayashi K, et al. Three-dimensional ultrasonographic evaluation of ovarian tumours: a preliminary study. Hum Reprod 1999;14:858-861
  131. Kurjak A, Kupesic S, Anic T, Kosuta D. Three-dimensional ultrasound and power Doppler improve the diagnosis of ovarian lesions. Gynecol Oncol 2000;76:28-32
  132. Fedele L, Bianchi S, Portuese A, Borruto F, Dorta M. Transrectal ultrasonography in the assessment of rectovaginal endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:444-448
  133. Chapron C, Dumontier I, Dousset B, et al. Results and role of rectal endoscopic ultrasonography for patients with deep pelvic endometriosis. Hum Reprod 1998;13:2266-2270
  134. Roseau G, Dumontier I, Palazzo L, et al. Rectosigmoid endometriosis: endoscopic ultrasound features and clinical implications. Endoscopy 2000;32:525-530
  135. Arrive L, Hricak H, Martin MC. Pelvic endometriosis: MR imaging. Radiology 1989;171:687-692
  136. Zawin M, McCarthy S, Scout L, Comite F. Endometriosis appearance and detection at MRI. Radiology 1989;171: 693-696
  137. Ha HK, Lim YT, Kim HS, et al. Diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis: fat-suppressed TI-weighted vs conventional MR images. AJR 1994;163:127-131
  138. Ascher SM, Agrawal R, Bis KG, et al. Endometriosis: appearance and detection with conventional and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed spin-echo techniques. J Magn Reson Imag 1995;5:251-257
  139. Nishimura K, Togashi K, Itoh K, et al. Endometrial cysts of the ovary: MR imaging. Radiology 1987;162:315-318
  140. Bis K, Vrachliotis T, Agrawal R, et al. Pelvic endometriosis: MR imaging spectrum with laparoscopic correlation and diagnostic pitfalls. Radiographics 1997;17:639-655
  141. Togashi K, Nishimura K, Kimura I, et al. Endometrial cysts: diagnosis with MR imaging. Radiology 1991;180:73-78
  142. Sugimura K, Okizuka H, Imaoka I, et al. Pelvic endometriosis: detection and diagnosis with chemical shift MR imaging. Radiology 1993;188:435-438
  143. Zawin M, McCarthy S, Scoutt L, et al. Monitoring therapy with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog: utility of MR imaging. Radiology 1990;175:503-506
  144. Takahashi K, Okada S, Okada M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and serum Ca-125 in evaluating patients with endometriomas prior to medical therapy. Fertil Steril 1996;65: 288-292
  145. Sugimura K, Okizuka H, Kaji Y, et al. MRI in predicting the response of ovarian endometriomas to hormone therapy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1996;20:145-150
  146. Binkovitz LA, King BF, Ehman RL. Sciatic endometriosis: MR appearance. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1991;15:508-510
  147. Kinkel K, Chapron C, Balleyguier C, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of deep endometriosis. Hum Reprod 1999;14:1080-1086
  148. Eguchi S, Komuta K, Haraguchi M, Furui J, Kanematsu T. MRI facilitated a diagnosis of endometriosis of the rectum. J Gastroenterol 2000;35:784-788
  149. Forsgren H, Lindhagen J, Melander S, Wagermark J. Colorectal endometriosis. Acta Chir Scand 1983;149:431-435
  150. Zanetta G, Webb MJ, Segura JW. Ureteral endometriosis diagnosed at ureteroscopy. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:857-859
  151. Martin DC, Hubert GD, Vander Zwaag R, el-Zeky FA. Laparoscopic appearances of peritoneal endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1989;51:63-67
  152. Murphy AA, Guzick DS, Rock JA. Microscopic peritoneal endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1989;51:1072-1073
  153. Stripling M, Martin D, Chatman D, Vander Zwaag R, Poston W. Subtle appearance of pelvic endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1988;49:427-431
  154. Jansen RP, Russell P. Nonpigmented endometriosis: clinical, laparoscopic, and pathologic definition. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986;155:1154-1159
  155. Nisolle M, Donnez J. Peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis, and adenomyotic nodules of the rectovaginal septum are three different entities. Fertil Steril 1997;68:585-596
  156. Nisolle M, Paindaveine B, Bourdon A, et al. Histologic study of peritoneal endometriosis in infertile women. Fertil Steril 1990;53:984-988
  157. Moen MH, Halvorsen TB. Histologic confirmation of endometriosis in different peritoneal lesions. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1992;71:337-342
  158. Wiegerinck M, Van Dop P, Brosens I. The staging of peritoneal endometriosis by the type of active lesion in addition to the revised American Fertility Society classification. Fertil Steril 2001;60:461-464
  159. Redwine DB. Age-related evolution in color appearance of endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1987;48:1062-1063
  160. Murphy AA, Green WR, Bobbie D, dela Cruz ZC, Rock JA. Unsuspected endometriosis documented by scanning electron microscopy in visually normal peritoneum. Fertil Steril 1986;46:522-524
  161. Balasch J, Creus M, Fabregues F, et al. Visible and non-visible endometriosis at laparoscopy in fertile and infertile women and in patients with chronic pelvic pain: a prospective study. Hum Reprod 1996;11:387-391
  162. Redwine DB. Peritoneal blood painting: an aid in the diagnosis of endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:865-866
  163. Gleicher N, Karande V, Rabin D, Dudkiewicz A, Pratt D. The bubble test: a new tool to improve the diagnosis of endometriosis. Hum Reprod 1995;10:923-926
  164. Walter AJ, Hentz JG, Magtibay PM, Cornella JL, Magrina JF. Endometriosis: correlation between histologic and visual findings at laparoscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184: 1407-1411
  165. The American Fertility Society. Revised American Fertility Society classification of endometriosis: 1985. Fertil Steril 1985;43:351-352
  166. Vercellini P, Vendola N, Bocciolone L, et al. Reliability of the visual diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1991;56:1198-1200
  167. Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Allan C, Metzger D, Sears D. Clinical and histologic classification of endometriomas. J Reprod Med 1992;37:771-776
  168. Candiani GB, Vercellini P, Fedele L. Laparoscopic ovarian puncture for correct staging of endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1990;53:994-997
  169. Redwine DB. Ovarian endometriosis: a marker for more extensive pelvic and intestinal disease. Fertil Steril 1999;72: 310-315
  170. Brosens I. Endometriosis: a disease because it is characterized by bleeding. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:263-267
  171. Donnez J, Nisolle M, Gillerot S, et al. Rectovaginal septum adenomyotic nodules: a series of 500 cases. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104:1014-1018
  172. Cornillie FJ, Oosterlynck D, Lauweryns JM, Koninckx PR. Deeply infiltrating pelvic endometriosis: histology and clinical significance. Fertil Steril 1990;53:978-983
  173. Koninckx PR, Martin DC. Deep endometriosis: a consequence of infiltration or retraction or possibly adenomyosis externa? Fertil Steril 1992;58:924-928
  174. Simsir A, Thorner K, Waisman J, Cangiarella J. Endometriosis in abdominal scars: a report of three cases diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Am Surg 2001;67:984-986
  175. Gordts S, Campo R, Brosens I. Office transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy for early diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis and adhesions. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2000;7:45-49
  176. Brosens I, Campo R, Gordts S, Brosens J. An appraisal of the role of laparoscopy: past, present, and future. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;74(suppl 1):S9-S14
  177. Patton P, Field C, Harms R, Coulam C. Ca-125 levels in endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1986;45:770-773
  178. Mais V, Guerriero S, Ajossa S, et al. The efficiency of transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of endometrioma. Fertil Steril 1993;60:776-780
  179. Guerriero S, Ajossa S, Paoletti A, et al. Tumor markers and transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of endometrioma. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:403-407