Figures for:
Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: Recent Advances

[Semin Respir Crit Care Med 23(2):115-126, 2002. © 2002 Thieme Medical Publishers]

Figure 1. Posterior-anterior (PA) view of a chest radiograph revealing perihilar infiltrates with a classic "butterfly" distribution.

Figure 2. Computed tomography of the chest reveals a branching pattern of white linear areas forming geometric shapes over-lying consolidated areas. This pattern is described as "crazy paving."

Figure 3. (A) Eosinophilic material present within alveolar spaces (hematoxylin and eosin stain, 40). (B) Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining confirms the presence of glycosylated phospholipids (PAS stain, 40).

Figure 4. Summary of proposed mechanisms in the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IL-3, 4, 5, 10, 13, interleukin-3, 4, 5, 10, 13; beta-chain KO or GM-CSF KO, knock-out mouse with deletion of beta-chain of GM-CSF receptor or deletion of GM-CSF gene; AM, alveolar macrophage; SP-B, surfactant protein B.