References for:
Strategies for Optimizing Antiepileptic Drug Therapy in Elderly People

[Pharmacotherapy 22(3):329-364, 2002. © 2002 Pharmacotherapy Publications]

  1. Cloyd JC, Lackner TE, Leppik IE. Antiepileptics in elderly patients. Pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacokinetics. Arch Fam Med 1994;3:589-98.
  2. Lackner TE, Cloyd JC, Thomas LW, Leppik IE. Antiepileptic drug use in nursing home residents: effect of age, gender, and co-medication on patterns of use. Epilepsia 1998;39:1083-7.
  3. Hauser WA. Epidemiology of seizures and epilepsy in elderly patients. In: Rowan AJ, Ramsey RE, eds. Seizures and epilepsy in elderly patients. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997:7-18.
  4. Moore SR, Jones JK. Adverse drug reaction surveillance in the geriatric population: a review. In: Moore SR, Teal TW, eds. Proceedings of the drug information association workshop. Geriatric drug use: clinical and social perspectives. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press, 1985:70-7.
  5. Gerety MB, Cornell JE, Plichta DT, Eimer M. Adverse events related to drugs and drug withdrawal in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993;41:1326-32.
  6. Grisso JA, Kelsey JL, Strom BL, et al. Risk factors for falls as a cause of hip fracture in women. The northeast hip fracture study group. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1326-31.
  7. Willmore JL, Dulac O. General principles: use of antiepileptic drugs in children and elderly patients. In: Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS, eds. Antiepileptic drugs. New York: Rowen Press, 1995:231-42.
  8. Kutt H, Winters W, Kokenge R, McDowell F. Diphenylhydantoin metabolism, blood levels, and toxicity. Arch Neurol 1964;11:642-8.
  9. Hauser WA. Seizure disorders: the changes with age. Epilepsia 1992;33(suppl 4):S6-14.
  10. Schachter SC, Cramer GW, Thompson GD, Chaponis J, Mendelson MA, Lawhorne L. An evaluation of antiepileptic drug therapy in nursing facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:1137-41.
  11. Oles KS, Gal P, Penry JK, Tapscott WK. Use of antiepileptic drugs in elderly patient populations. Public Health Rep 1987;102:335-7.
  12. Brodie MJ, Overstall PW, Giorgi L, for the UK Lamotrigine Elderly Study Group. Multicentre, double-blind, randomised comparison between lamotrigine and carbamazepine in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1999;37:81-7.
  13. Brodie MJ, Richens A, Yuen AWC. Double-blind comparison of lamotrigine and carbamazepine in newly diagnosed epilepsy. Lancet 1995;345:476-9.
  14. Reunanen M, Dam M, Yuen AWC. A randomized open multicentre comparative trial of lamotrigine and carba-mazepine as monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1996;23:149-55.
  15. Beydoun A. Monotherapy trials of new antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1997;38(suppl 9):S21-31.
  16. Beydoun A, Fakhoury T, Nasredding W, Abou-Khalil B. Conversion to high dose gabapentin monotherapy in patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Epilepsia 1998;39:188-93.
  17. Bergey GK, Morris HH, Rosenfeld W, et al. Gabapentin monotherapy. I. An 8-day, double-blind, dose-controlled, multicenter study in hospitalized patients with refractory complex partial or secondarily generalized seizures. Neurology 1997;49:739-45.
  18. Beydoun A, Fischer J, Labar DR, et al. Gabapentin monotherapy. II. A 26-week, double-blind dose-controlled, multicenter study of conversion from polytherapy in outpatients with refractory complex partial or secondarily generalized seizures. Neurology 1997;49:746-52.
  19. Loisseau P. Pathologic processes in elderly patients and their association with seizures. In: Rowan AJ, Ramsey RE, eds. Seizures and epilepsy in elderly patients. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997:63-85.
  20. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Beghi E, Nicolosi A, Kurland LT. The risk of unprovoked seizures after encephalitis and meningitis. Neurology 1998;38:1407-10.
  21. Curran S, dePaw K. Selecting an antidepressant for use in a patient with epilepsy. Drug Saf 1998;18:125-33.
  22. Franson KL, Hay DP, Neppe V, et al. Drug-induced seizures in elderly patients. Causative agents and optimal management. Drugs Aging 1995;7:38-48.
  23. Alldredge BK. Seizure risk associated with psychotropic drugs: clinical and pharmacokinetic considerations. Neurology 1999;53:S68-75.
  24. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals. Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:2200-11.
  25. Kilpatrick CJ, Davis SM, Tress BM, Rossiter SC, Hopper JL, Vandendriesen ML. Epileptic seizures in acute stroke. Arch Neurol 1990;47:157-60.
  26. Garcia PA, Alldredge BK. Drug-induced seizures. Neurol Clin 1994;12:85-99.
  27. Godfrey J. Misleading presentation of epilepsy in elderly people. Age Ageing 1989;18:17-20.
  28. Tinuper P. The altered presentation of seizures in elderly patients. In: Rowan AJ, Ramsay RE, eds. Seizures and epilepsy in elderly patients. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997:123-30.
  29. Moore AR, O'Keeffe ST. Drug-induced cognitive impairment in the elderly. Drugs Aging 1999;15:15-28.
  30. Hopkins A, Garman A, Clarke C. The first seizure in adult life: value of clinical features, electroencephalography and computerized tomographic scanning in prediction of seizure recurrence. Lancet 1988;1:721-6.
  31. Tallis R. Treatment of epilepsy in elderly patients. In: Shorvon S, Dreifus D, Fish D, Thomas D, eds. The treatment of epilepsy. London: Blackwell Science, 1996:227-37.
  32. Smith D, Hutton JL, Sandemann D, et al. The prognosis of primary intracerebral tumours presenting with epilepsy: the outcome of medical and surgical management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;54:915-20.
  33. DeLorenzo RJ, Hauser WA, Towne AR, et al. A prospective, population-based epidemiologic study of status epilepticus in Richmond, Virginia. Neurology 1996;46:1029-35.
  34. Dodrill CB, Wilensky A. Cognitive and adjustmental consequences of seizures and antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients. In: Rowan AJ, Ramsey RE, eds. Seizures and epilepsy in elderly patients. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997:179-90.
  35. Robertson MM, Trimble MR. Depressive illness in patients with epilepsy: a review. Epilepsia 1983;24(suppl 2):S109-16.
  36. Baker GA, Jacoby A, Buck D, Brooks J, Potts P, Chadwick DW. The quality of life of older people with epilepsy: findings from a UK community study. Seizure 2001;10:92-9.
  37. Tallis R. Through a glass darkly: assessing the quality of care of older people using quality of life measures. In: Quality of life and quality of care in epilepsy: update 1993. London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, 1993:79-86.
  38. Fenwick P. Psychiatric disorders of epilepsy in the older. In: Epilepsy and the older. Round table series, vol 9. London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, 1988:52-61.
  39. Begley CE, Famulari M, Annegers JF, et al. The cost of epilepsy in the United States: an estimate from population-based clinical and survey data. Epilepsia 2000;41:342-51.
  40. Begley CE, Annegers JF, Lairson DR, Reynolds TF, Hauser WA. Cost of epilepsy in the United States: a model based on incidence and prognosis. Epilepsia 1994;35:1230-43.
  41. Luhdorf K, Jensen LK, Plesner M. Epilepsy in the elderly: prognosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1986;74:409-15.
  42. Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Collins JF. Prognosis for total control of complex partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Neurology 1996;47:68-76.
  43. Ramsay RE, Rowan AJ, Slater AG, et al. Effect of age on epilepsy and its treatment: results from the VA cooperative study [abstr]. Epilepsia 1994;35(suppl 8):91.
  44. Heller AJ, Chesterman P, Elwes RDC, et al. Phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate for newly diagnosed adult epilepsy: a randomized comparative monotherapy trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;58:44-50.
  45. Finkel AS, Hammond JM, Karlin DS, et al. Drug topics red book. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics, 2000.
  46. Scheuer ML, Pedley TA. The evaluation and treatment of seizures. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1468-74.
  47. Troupin AS, Johannessen SI. Epilepsy in elderly patients: a pharmacological perspective. In: Smith DB, ed. Epilepsy: current approaches to diagnosis and treatment. New York: Raven Press, 1990:141-53.
  48. Privitera MD. Evidence-based medicine and antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):547-56.
  49. Kalviainen R, Aikia M, Riekkvien PJ Sr. Cognitive adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. Incidence, mechanisms and therapeutic implications. CNS Drugs 1996;5:358-68.
  50. Wallace Laboratories. Felbatol (felbamate) package insert. Cranbury, NJ; February 1999.
  51. Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Tegretol (carbamazepine) package insert. East Hanover, NJ; June 2000.
  52. Elan Pharmaceuticals. Zonegran (zonisamide) package insert. South San Francisco, CA; March 2000.
  53. Parke-Davis. Cerebyx (fosphenytoin sodium injection) package insert. Morris Plains, NJ; May 1999.
  54. Parke-Davis. Dilantin (extended-release phenytoin sodium capsules) package insert. Morris Plains, NJ; May 1999.
  55. Elkins-Sinn. Phenytoin sodium injection package insert. Cherry Hill, NJ; September 1998.
  56. Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Trileptal (oxcarbazepine) package insert. East Hanover, NJ; January 2000.
  57. A. H. Robins. Donnatal (phenobarbital sodium) package insert. Columbus, OH; June 1996.
  58. Parke-Davis. Neurontin (gabapentin) package insert. Morris Plains, NJ; November 2000.
  59. UCB Pharma. Keppra (levetiracetam) package insert. Smyrna, GA; March 2000.
  60. Abbott Laboratories. Gabitril (tiagabine hydrochloride) package insert. Chicago, IL; August 1999.
  61. Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceuticals. Topamax (topiramate) package insert. Raritan, NJ; September 2001.
  62. Athena Neurosciences. Mysoline (primidone) package insert. South San Francisco, CA; June 1998.
  63. Anders RJZ, Wang E, Radhakrishnan J, Sharifi R, Lee M. Overflow urinary incontinence due to carbamazepine. J Urol 1985;134:758-9.
  64. Roche Pharma. Klonopin (clonazepam) package insert. Nutley, NJ; October 1997.
  65. Gil-Nagel A, Gapany S, Blesi K, Villanueva N, Bergen D. Incontinence during treatment with gabapentin. Neurology 1997;48:1467-71.
  66. Glaxo Wellcome. Lamictal (lamotrigine) package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC; May 2001.
  67. Abbott Laboratories. Depakote (divalproex sodium) package insert. Chicago, IL; June 2000.
  68. Wong CK, Lhatoo SD. Adverse reactions to new anticonvulsant drugs. Drug Saf 2000;23:35-56.
  69. Hansten PD, Horn JR, Koda-Kimble MA, Young LY. Drug interactions: a clinical perspective and analysis of current developments. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, 2001.
  70. Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Collins JF, et al. Comparison of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and primidone in partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. N Engl J Med 1985;313:145-51.
  71. Cameron H, Macphee GJA. Anticonvulsant therapy in the elderly -- a need for placebo controlled trials. Epilepsy Res 1995;21:149-57.
  72. Lammers MW, Hekster YA, Keyser A, Meinardi H, Renier WO, Van Lier H. Monotherapy or polytherapy for epilepsy revisited: a quantitative assessment. Epilepsia 1995;36:440-6.
  73. Schmidt D. Two antiepileptic drugs for intractable epilepsy with complex-partial seizures. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1982;45:1119-24.
  74. Harden CL, Zisfein J, Atos-Radzion GC, Tuchman AJ. Combination valproate-carbamazepine therapy in partial epilepsies resistant to carbamazepine monotherapy. J Epilepsy 1993;6:91-4.
  75. Willmore LJ, Shu U, Wallin B. Efficacy and safety of add-on divalproex sodium in the treatment of complex partial seizures. Neurology 1996;46:49-53.
  76. Marson AG, Kadir ZA, Hutton JL, Chadwick DW. The new antiepileptic drugs: a systematic review of their efficacy and tolerability. Epilepsia 1997;38:859-80.
  77. Perucca E. Pharmacologic advantages of antiepileptic drug monotherapy. Epilepsia 1997;38(suppl 5):S6-8.
  78. Adams HP, Brott TG, Crowell RM, et al. Guidelines for thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group on the stroke council, American Heart Association. Circulation 1994;90:1588-1601.
  79. Asconape JJ, Penry JK. Poststroke seizures in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med 1991;7:483-92.
  80. Mayberg MR, Batjer HH, Dacey R, et al. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the stroke council, American Heart Association. Circulation 1994;90:2592-605.
  81. Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group. Randomized study of antiepileptic drug withdrawal in patients in remission. Lancet 1991;337:1175-80.
  82. Leppik IE, ed. When to start and when to stop treatment for seizures. In: Contemporary diagnosis and management of the patient with epilepsy, 4th ed. Newton, PA: Handbooks in Health Care, 1998:54-61.
  83. Callaghan N, Garrett A, Goggin T. Withdrawal of anticonvulsant drugs in patients free of seizures for two years. N Engl J Med 1988;318:942-6.
  84. American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: a guideline for discontinuing antiepileptic drugs in seizure-free patients -- summary statement. Report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;47:600-2.
  85. Pellock JM. Management of acute seizure episodes. Epilepsia 1998;39(suppl 1):S28-35.
  86. Anonymous. Consensus statement of an expert panel convened by Athena Laboratories in Houston, TX, October 2, 1995.
  87. Dreifuss FE, Rosman NP, Cloyd JC, et al. A comparison of rectal diazepam gel and placebo for acute repetitive seizures. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1869-75.
  88. Remy C, Jourdil N, Villemain D, Favel P, Genton P. Intrarectal diazepam in epileptic adults. Epilepsia 1992;33:353-8.
  89. Lombroso CT. Intermittent home treatment of status and clusters of seizures. Epilepsia 1989;30(suppl 2):S11-14.
  90. Roxane Laboratories. Diazepam oral solution and Intensol. Data on file. Columbus, OH; 1994.
  91. Greenblatt DJ, Divoll M, Harmatz JS, Shader RI. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sublingual lorazepam with intravenous, intramuscular, and oral lorazepam. J Pharm Sci 1982;71:248-52.
  92. Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI, Harmatz JS. Implications of altered drug disposition in the elderly: studies of benzodiazepines. J Clin Pharmacol 1989;29:866-72.
  93. Elan Pharmaceuticals. Diastat (diazepam rectal delivery system) package insert. South San Francisco, CA; July 1999.
  94. Brodtkorb E, Aamo T, Henriksen O, Lossius R. Rectal diazepam: pitfalls of excessive use in refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1999;35:123-33.
  95. Boucher BA. Fosphenytoin: a novel phenytoin prodrug. Pharmacotherapy 1996;16:777-91.
  96. DeLorenzo RJ, Pellock JM, Towne AR, Boggs JG. Epidemiology of status epilepticus. J Clin Neurophysiol 1995;12:316-25.
  97. Lowenstein DH, Alldredge BK. Status epilepticus. N Engl J Med 1998;338:970-6.
  98. Leppik IE. Status epilepticus: treatment in 2001. New approaches, new medicines. MINCEP Epilepsy Reports 2001;10:1-4.
  99. Lowenstein DH, Alldredge BK, Gelb AM, et al. Results of a controlled trial of benzodiazepines for the treatment of status epilepticus in the prehospital setting [abstr]. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 7):243.
  100. Treiman DM, Meyers PD, Walton NY, et al. A comparison of four treatments for generalized convulsive status epilepticus. N Engl J Med 1998;339:792-8.
  101. Treiman DM, Walton NY, Collins JF. Treatment of status epilepticus if first drug fails [abstr]. Epilepsia 1999:40(suppl 7):243.
  102. Bleck TB. Management approaches to prolonged seizures and status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 1):S59-63.
  103. MacLeod SM, Giles HG, Bengert B, Liu FF, Sellers EM. Age and gender related differences in diazepam pharmacokinetics. J Clin Pharmacol 1979;19:15-19.
  104. Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Divoll M, Abernethy DR, Feyerabend H, Dengler HJ. Diazepam kinetics in relation to age and sex. Pharmacology 1981;23:24-30.
  105. Reidenberg MM, Levy M, Warner H, et al. Relationship between diazepam dose, plasma level, age, and central nervous system depression. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1978;23:371-4.
  106. Giroud M, Gras D, Escousse A, et al. Use of injectable valproic acid in status epilepticus: a pilot study. Drug Invest 1993;5:154-9.
  107. Sinha S, Naritoku DK. Intravenous valproate is well tolerated in unstable patients with status epilepticus. Neurology 2000;55:722-4.
  108. Porsteinsson AP, Tariot PN, Erb R, et al. Placebo-controlled study of divalproex sodium for agitation in dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2001;9:58-66.
  109. Tariot PN, Schneider LS, Mintzer JE, et al. Safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium in the treatment of signs and symptoms of mania in elderly patients with dementia: results of double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2001;62:51-67.
  110. Kunik ME, Puryear L, Orenco CA, Molinari V, Workman RH Jr. The efficacy and tolerability of divalproex sodium in elderly demented patients with behavioral disturbances. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998;13:29-34.
  111. Herrmann N. Valproic acid treatment of agitation in dementia. Can J Psychiatry 1998;43:69-72.
  112. Porsteinsson AP, Tariot PN, Erb R, Gaile S. An open trial of valproate for agitation in geriatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1997;5:344-51.
  113. Haas S, Vincent K, Holt J, Lippmann S. Divalproex: a possible treatment alternative for demented, elderly aggressive patients. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1997;9:145-7.
  114. Narayan M, Nelson JC. Treatment of dementia with behavioral disturbance using divalproex or a combination of divalproex and a neuroleptic. J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58:351-4.
  115. Lott AD, McElroy SL, Keys MA. Valproate in the treatment of behavioral agitation in elderly patients with dementia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995;7:314-19.
  116. Sandborn WD, Bendfeldt F, Hamdy R. Valproic acid for physically aggressive behavior in geriatric patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1995;3:239-42.
  117. Horne M, Lindley SE. Divalproex sodium in the treatment of aggressive behaviour and dysphoria in patients with organic brain syndromes. J Clin Psychiatry 1995;56:430-1.
  118. Sival RC, Haffmans PM, vanGent PP, Nieuwkerk JF. The effects of sodium valproate on disturbed behavior in dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994;42:906-7.
  119. Mellow AM, Solando-Lopez C, Davis S. Sodium valproate in the treatment of behavioral disturbance in dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry 1993;6:205-9.
  120. Tariot PN, Jakimovich LJ, Erb R, et al. Withdrawal from controlled carbamazepine therapy followed by further carbamazepine treatment in patients with dementia. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:684-9.
  121. Tariot PN, Erb R, Podgorski CA, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for agitation and aggression in dementia. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:54-61.
  122. Cooney C, Mortimer A, Smith A, Newton K, Wrigley M. Carbamazepine use in aggressive behavior associated with senile dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1996;11:901-5.
  123. Lemke MR. Effect of carbamazepine on agitation in Alzheimer's disease in patients refractory to neuroleptics. J Clin Psychiatry 1995;56:354-7.
  124. Tariot PN, Erb R, Leibovici A, et al. Carbamazepine treatment of agitation in nursing home patients with dementia: a preliminary study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994;42:1160-6.
  125. Mervis JR, Ganzell S, Fitten LJ, et al. Comparison of carbamazepine and trazodone in the control of aggression/agitation in demented, institutionalized patients: a randomized double blind parallel study [abstr]. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991;39:A75.
  126. Gleason R, Schneider LS. Carbamazepine treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's outpatients refractory to neuroleptics. J Clin Psychiatry 1990;51:115-18.
  127. Marin DB, Greenwald BS. Carbamazepine for aggressive agitation in demented patients during nursing care. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:805.
  128. Patterson JF. A preliminary study of carbamazepine in the treatment of assaultive patients with dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1988;1:21-3.
  129. Leibovici A, Tariot PN. Carbamazepine treatment of agitation associated with dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1988;1:110-12.
  130. Chambers CA, Bain J, Rosbottom R, Ballinger BR, McLaren S. Carbamazepine in senile dementia and overactivity -- a placebo controlled double blind trial. IRCS J Med Sci 1982;10:505-6.
  131. Herrmann N, Lanctot K, Myszak M. Effectiveness of gabapentin for the treatment of behavioral disorders in dementia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000;20:90-3.
  132. Sheldon LJ, Ancill RJ, Holliday SG. Gabapentin in geriatric psychiatry patients. Can J Psychiatry 1998;43:422-3.
  133. Goldenberg G, Kahaner K, Basavaraju N, Rangu S. Gabapentin for disruptive behavior in an elderly demented patient. Drugs Aging 1998;13:183-4.
  134. Regan WM, Gordon SM. Gabapentin for behavioral agitation in Alzheimer's disease. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997;17:59-60.
  135. Taniguchi K, Kato Y, Hayami D, Okuda J, Tabushi K. Effect of zonisamide on disturbed behavior in Alzheimer's disease [abstr]. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998;13:43.
  136. Kato Y, Taniguchi K, Okuda J, Tabushi K. Case report of zonisamide treatment for aggression associated with Alzheimer's disease [abstr]. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998;13:42-3.
  137. Lanctot KL, Best TS, Mittmann N, et al. Efficacy and safety of neuroleptics in behavioral disorders associated with dementia. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:550-61.
  138. Katz IR, Jeste DV, Mintzer JE, et al. Comparison of risperidone and placebo for psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia: a randomized, double-blind trial. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:107-15.
  139. McDonald WM. Epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of geriatric mania. J Clin Psychiatry 2000;61(suppl 13):3-11.
  140. Jefferson JW. Lithium toxicity in the elderly. In: Nelson JC, ed. Geriatric psychopharmacology. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997:273-83.
  141. Bowden CL. Anticonvulsants in bipolar elderly. In: Nelson JC, ed. Geriatric psychopharmacology. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997:285-99.
  142. Chen ST, Altshuler LL, Melnyk KA, Erhart SM, Miller E, Mintz J. Efficacy of lithium vs. valproate in the treatment of mania in the elderly: a retrospective study. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:181-6.
  143. Mordecia DJ, Sheikh JI, Glick ID. Divalproex for the treatment of geriatric bipolar disorder. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry1999;14:494-6.
  144. Risinger RC, Risby ED, Risch SC. Safety and efficacy of divalproex sodium in elderly bipolar patients [letter]. J Clin Psychiatry 1994;55:215.
  145. Schneider AL, Wilcox CS. Divalproate augmentation in lithium-resistant, rapid cycling mania in four geriatric patients. J Affect Disord 1998;47:201-5.
  146. Puryear LJ, Kunik ME, Workman R. Tolerability of divalproex sodium in elderly psychiatric patients with mixed diagnoses. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1995;8:234-7.
  147. McFarland BH, Miller MR, Straumfjord AA. Valproate use in the older manic patient. J Clin Psychiatry 1990;51:479-81.
  148. Noaghiul S, Narayan M, Nelson JC. Divalproex treatment of mania in elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998;6:257-62.
  149. Herbert PB, Nelson JC. Parenteral valproate for control of acute mania. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:1023-4.
  150. Kando JC, Tohen M, Castillo J, Zarate CA. The use of valproate in an elderly population with affective symptoms. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;57:238-40.
  151. Cullen M, Mitchell P, Brodaty H, et al. Carbamazepine for treatment-resistant melancholia. J Clin Psychiatry 1991;52:472-6.
  152. Louis ED, Wendt KJ, Ford B. Senile tremor. What is the prevalence and severity of tremor in older adults? Gerontology 2000;46:12-16.
  153. Koller WC, Hubble JP, Busenbark KL. Essential tremor. In: Calne DB, ed. Neurodegenerative diseases. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1994:717-42.
  154. Koller WC, Vetere-Overfield B. Acute and chronic effects of propranolol and primidone in essential tremor. Neurology 1989;39:1587-8.
  155. Gironell A, Kaliseusky J, Barbanoj M, Lopez-Villegas D, Hernandez G, Pascual-Sedano B. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of gabapentin and propranolol in essential tremor. Arch Neurol 1999;56:475-80.
  156. Pahwa R, Lyons K, Hubble JP, et al. Double-blind placebo controlled study of gabapentin in essential tremor. Mov Disord 1998;13:465-7.
  157. Merren MD. Gabapentin for treatment of pain and tremor: a large case series. South Med J 1998;91:739-44.
  158. Rull JA, Quibrera R, Gonzalez-Millan G, Castaneda OL. Symptomatic treatment of peripheral diabetic neuropathy with carbamazepine (Tegretol): double-blind crossover trial. Diabetologia 1969;5:215-18.
  159. Wilton TD. Tegretol in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. S Afr Med J 1974;48:869-72.
  160. Chadda VS, Matghaur MS. Double-blind study of the effects of diphenylhydantoin sodium on diabetic neuropathy. J Assoc Physicians India 1978;26:403-6.
  161. Killian JM, Fromm GH. Carbamazepine in the treatment of neuralgia: use and side effects. Arch Neurol 1968;19:129-36.
  162. Chakrabarti AK, Samantaray SK. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: nerve conduction studies before, during and after carbamazepine therapy. Aust N Z J Med 1976;6:565-8.
  163. Schmidt D. Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. New York: Raven Press, 1982:155-61.
  164. Patsalos PN, Duncan JS. Antiepileptic drugs: a review of clinically significant drug interactions. Drug Saf 1993;9:156-84.
  165. Campbell FG, Graham JG, Zilkha KJ. Clinical trial of carbazepine (Tegretol) in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1966;29:265-7.
  166. Irving GA, Wallace MS. Pain management for the practicing physician. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997:37-47.
  167. Portenoy RK. Adjuvant analgesics in pain management. In: Doyle D, Hanks GWC, MacDonald N, eds. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993:187-203.
  168. Graves NM, Brundage RC, Wen Y, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in adults with epilepsy. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:273-81.
  169. Lipman AG. Analgesic drugs for neuropathic and sympathetically maintained pain. Clin Geriatr Med 1996;12:501-15.
  170. Billings JA. Neuropathic pain. J Palliat Care 1994;10:40-3.
  171. Galer BS. Painful polyneuropathy: diagnosis, patho-physiology, and management. Semin Neurol 1994;14:237-46.
  172. Saudek CD, Werns S, Reidenberg MM. Phenytoin in the treatment of diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1977;22:196-9.
  173. Braham J, Saiz A. Phenytoin in the treatment of trigeminal and other neuralgias. Lancet 1960;2:892-3.
  174. Bauer LA, Blouin RA. Age and phenytoin kinetics in adult epileptics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1982;31:301-4.
  175. Backonja M, Beydoun A, Edwards KR, et al. Gabapentin monotherapy for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280:1831-6.
  176. Max MB, Lynch SA, Muire J, Shoaf SE, Smoller B, Dubner R. Effects of desipramine, amitriptyline, and fluoxetine on pain in diabetic neuropathy. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1250-6.
  177. Rowbotham M, Harden N, Stacey B, Bernstein P, Magnus-Miller L. Gabapentin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280: 1837-42.
  178. Max MB, Schafer SC, Culnane M, Smoller B, Dubner R, Gracely RH. Amitriptyline, but not lorazepam, relieves postherpetic neuralgia. Neurology 1988;38:1427-32.
  179. Gerson GR, Jones RB, Luscombe DK. Studies on the concomitant use of carbamazepine and clomipramine for the relief of post-herpetic neuralgia. Postgrad Med J 1997;53(suppl 4):104-9.
  180. Raftery A. The management of postherpetic pain using sodium valproate and amitriptyline. J Irish Med Assoc 1979;72:399-401.
  181. Sidebottom A, Maxwell S. The medical and surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia. J Clin Pharm Ther 1995;20:31-5.
  182. Blom S. Tic douloureux treated with new anticonvulsant. Arch Neurol 1963;9:91-6.
  183. Taylor JC, Brauer S, Espir MLE. Long-term treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with carbamazepine. Postgrad Med J 1981;57:16-18.
  184. Galer BS. Neuropathic pain of peripheral origin: advances in pharmacological treatment. Neurology 1995;45(suppl 9):S17-25.
  185. Leijon G, Boivie J. Central post-stroke pain -- a controlled trial of amitriptyline and carbamazepine. Pain 1989;36:27-36.
  186. Holtom N. Gabapentin for treatment of thalamic pain syndrome [letter]. Palliat Med 2000;14:167.
  187. Canavero S, Bonicalzi V. Lamotrigine control of central pain. Pain 1996;68:179-81.
  188. McQuay H, Carroll D, Jadad AR, Wiffen P, Moore A. Anticonvulsant drugs for management of pain: a systematic review. BMJ 1995;311:1047-52.
  189. Cooper SL, Somani SK. Pharmacy-based adverse drug reaction monitoring program. Consult Pharm 1990;5:659-64.
  190. Pitner JK, Long LD, Meyer RP, Pennypacker LC. Phenytoin toxicity in an older patient with slow metabolism and atypical presentation. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:218-25.
  191. Theodore WH. Clinical pharmacology of antiepileptic drugs: selected topics. Neurol Clin 1990;8:177-91.
  192. Jarrett PG, Rockwood K, Carver D, Stolee P, Cosway S. Illness presentation in elderly patients. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:1060-4.
  193. Greenblatt DJ. Reduced serum albumin concentrations in elderly patients: a report from the Boston collaborative surveillance program. J Am Geriatr Soc 1979;27:20-2.
  194. Wallace SM, Verbeeck RK. Plasma protein binding of drugs in elderly patients. Clin Pharmacokinet 1987;12:41-72.
  195. Verbeeck RK, Cardinal JA, Wallace SM. Effect of age and sex on the plasma binding of acidic and basic drugs. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1984;27:91-7.
  196. Hayes MJ, Langman MJS, Short AH. Changes in drug metabolism with increasing age. II. Phenytoin clearance and protein binding. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1975;2:73-9.
  197. MacKichan JJ. Influence of protein binding and use of unbound (free) drug concentrations In: Evans WE, Schentag JJ, Jusko WJ, eds. Applied pharmacokinetics: principles of therapeutic drug monitoring. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, 1992:5-1-5-48.
  198. Cloyd J. Pharmacokinetic pitfalls of present antiepileptic medications. Epilepsia 1991;32(suppl 5):S53-65.
  199. Knodell RG, Dubey RK, Wilkinson WR, Stave G. Oxidative metabolism of hexobarbital in human liver: relationship to polymorphic S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1988;245:845-9.
  200. Miglioli PA, Pivetta P, Strazzabosco M, Orlando R, Okolicsanyi L, Palatini P. Effect of age on single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of erythromycin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1990;39:161-4.
  201. Robertson DR, Waller DG, Renwick AG, George CF. Age related changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1988;25:297-305.
  202. Loi CM, Parker BM, Cusack BJ, Vestal RE. Aging and drug interactions. III. Individual and combined effects of cimetidine and cimetidine and ciprofloxacin on theophylline metabolism in healthy male and female nonsmokers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;80:627-37.
  203. Chandler MH, Scott SR, Blouin RA. Age associated stereoselective alterations in hexobarbital metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1988;43:436-41.
  204. Klotz U, Avant GR, Hoyumpa A, Schenker S, Wilkinson GR. The effects of age and liver disease on the disposition and elimination of diazepam in adult man. J Clin Invest 1975;55:347-59.
  205. Vermeulen J, Aldenkamp AP. Cognitive side-effects of chronic antiepileptic drug treatment: a review of 25 years of research. Epilepsy Res 1995;22:65-95.
  206. Craig I, Tallis R. Impact of valproate and phenytoin on cognitive function in elderly patients: results of a single-blind randomized comparative study. Epilepsia 1994;35:381-90.
  207. Read CL, Stephen LJ, Stolarek I, Paul A, Sills GJ, Brodie MJ. Cognitive effects of anticonvulsant monotherapy in elderly patients: a placebo-controlled study. Seizure 1998;7:159-62.
  208. Smith DB, Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Collins JF, Novelly RA, Craft B. Results of a nation-wide Veterans Administration cooperative study comparing the efficacy and toxicity of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone. Epilepsia 1987;28(suppl 3):S50-8.
  209. Prevey ML, Delaney RC, Cramer JA, Cattanach L, Collins JF, Mattson RH. Effect of valproate on cognitive functioning. Comparison with carbamazepine. Department of Veterans Affairs epilepsy cooperative study 264 group. Arch Neurol 1996;53:1008-16.
  210. Pellock JM, Kamin M, Kraut L, Wu S. Adverse events (AEs) when topiramate is titrated to effect: results from an open-label, in-practice study with 800+ patients [abstr]. Epilepsia 2000;41(suppl 7):105.
  211. Devinsky O. Cognitive and behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 2):S46-65.
  212. Drane DL, Meador KJ. Epilepsy, anticonvulsant drugs and cognition. Ballieres Clin Neurol 1996;5:77-85.
  213. Bohannon AD, Hanlon JT, Landerman R, Gold DT. Association of race and other potential risk factors with nonvertebral fractures in community-dwelling elderly women. Am J Epidemiol 1999;149:1002-9.
  214. Scane AC, Francis RM, Sutcliffe AM, Francis MJ, Rawlings DJ, Chapple CL. Case-control study and sequelae of symptomatic vertebral fractures in men. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:91-7.
  215. Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. N Engl J Med 1995;332:767-73.
  216. Stein MS, Wark JD, Scherer SC, et al. Falls related to vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in an Australian nursing home and hostel. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:1195-1201.
  217. Thomas RJ. Seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:605-17.
  218. Stephen LJ, McLellan AR, Harrison JH, et al. Bone density and antiepileptic drugs: a case-controlled study. Seizure 1999;8:339-42.
  219. Lidgren L, Nilsson BE, Walloe A. Bone mineral content in epileptics. Calcif Tissue Int 1979;28:99-102.
  220. Bogliun G, Beghi E, Crespi V, Delodouici L, D'Amico P. Anticonvulsant drugs and bone metabolism. Acta Neurol Scand 1986;74:284-8.
  221. Valimaki MJ, Tiihonen M, Laitinen K, et al. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy absorptiometry and novel markers of bone formation and resorption in patients on antiepileptic drugs. J Bone Miner Res 1994;9:631-7.
  222. Feldkamp J, Becker A, Whitte OW, Scharff D, Scherbaum WA. Long-term anticonvulsant therapy leads to low bone mineral density: evidence for direct drug effects of phenytoin and carbamazepine on human osteoblast-like cells. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2000;108:37-43.
  223. Bauer DC, Browner WS, Cauley JA, et al. Study of osteoporotic fractures research group. Factors associated with appendicular bone mass in older women. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:657-65.
  224. Cohen A, Lancman M, Mogul H, Marks S, Smith K. Strategies to protect bone mass in the older patient with epilepsy. Geriatrics 1997;52:70-81.
  225. Weinstein R, Bryce G, Sappington L, King J, Gallagher B. ↓ serum ionized calcium and normal vitamin D metabolite levels with anticonvulsant drug treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;58:1003-9.
  226. Tjellesen L, Christiansen C. Serum vitamin D metabolites in epileptic patients treated with 2 different anti-convulsants. Acta Neurol Scand 1982;66:335-41.
  227. Sheth RD, Wesolowski CA, Jacob JC, et al. Effect of carbamazepine and valproate on bone mineral density. J Pediatr 1995;127:256-62.
  228. Perucca E, Richens A. Biotransformation, general principles. In: Levy R, Mattson R, Meldrum B, Penry JK, Dreifuss FE, eds. Antiepileptic drugs. New York: Raven Press, 1989:23-48.
  229. Manolagas SC, Stavros C, Jilka RL. Bone marrow, cytokines, and bone remodeling. N Engl J Med 1995;332:305-11.
  230. Shorvon S, Stefan H. Overview of the safety of newer antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1997;38(suppl 1):S45-51.
  231. Gustavson LE, Mengel HB. Pharmacokinetics of tiagabine. A gamma-aminobutyric acid-uptake inhibitor in healthy subjects after single and multiple doses. Epilepsia 1995;36:605-11.
  232. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 2001;285:785-95.
  233. Schmidt D, Kramer G. The new anti-convulsant drugs: implications for avoidance of adverse effects. Drug Saf 1994;11:422-31.
  234. Abbott Laboratories. Depakote ER (divalproex sodium, extended-release) package insert. North Chicago, IL; August 2000.
  235. Anderson GD. A mechanistic approach to antiepileptic drug interactions. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:554-63.
  236. Mooradian AD, Hernandez L, Tamai IC, Marshall C. Variability of serum phenytoin concentrations in nursing home patients. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:890-2.
  237. Mylan Laboratories. Extended phenytoin sodium package insert. Morgantown, WV; February 2000.
  238. Yacobi A, Zlotnick S, Colaizzi JL, et al. A multiple-dose safety and bioequivalence study of a narrow therapeutic index drug: a case for carbamazepine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;65:389-94.
  239. Bender AD, Post A, Meier JP, Higson JE, Reichard G Jr. Plasma protein binding of drugs as a function of age in adult human subjects. J Pharm Sci 1975;64:1711-13.
  240. Anderson GD, Pak C, Doane KW, et al. Revised Winter-Tozer equation for normalized phenytoin concentrations in trauma and elderly patients with hypoalbuminemia. Ann Pharmacother 1997;31:279-84.
  241. Vestal RE, Norris AH, Tobin JD, Cohen DH, Shack MW, Andres R. Antipyrine metabolism in man: influence of age, alcohol, caffeine and smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1975;18:425-32.
  242. Bach B, Hansen JM, Kampmann JP, Rasmussen SN, Skovsted L. Disposition of antipyrine and phenytoin correlated with age and liver volume in man. Clin Pharmacokinet 1981;6:389-96.
  243. Elliott DP, Condee JH, Covelli BM. Phenytoin and serum phenytoin variability among patients in a long-term care facility. Consult Pharm 1992;7:1193-8.
  244. Manji F, Fejerskov O, Baelum V. Pattern of dental caries in an adult rural population. Caries Res 1989;23:55-62.
  245. Bauer LA. Interference of oral phenytoin absorption by continuous nasogastric feedings. Neurology 1982;32:570-2.
  246. Doak KK, Haas CE, Dunnigan KS, Reiss RA. Bioavailability of phenytoin acid and phenytoin sodium with enteral feedings. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:637-45.
  247. Tiula E, Neuvonen PJ. Antiepileptic drugs and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein [letter]. N Engl J Med 1982;307:1148.
  248. Dawling S, Crome P. Clinical pharmacokinetic consider-ations in the elderly; an update. Clin Pharmacokinet 1989;17:236-63.
  249. Hockings N, Moody APJ, Davidson AVM, Davidson DLW. The effects of age on carbamazepine pharmacokinetics and adverse effects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1986;22:725-8.
  250. Van Amelsvoort T, Bakshi R, Devaux CB, Schwabe S. Hyponatremia associated with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine therapy: a review. Epilepsia 1994;35:181-8.
  251. Pellock JM, Willmore LJ. A rationale guide to routine blood monitoring in patients receiving antiepileptic drugs. Neurology 1991;41:961-4.
  252. Pitlick WH, Levy RH, Troupin AS, Green JR. Pharmacokinetic model to describe self-induced ↓s in steady-state concentrations of carbamazepine. J Pharm Sci 1976;65:462-3.
  253. Graves NM, Kriel RL, Jones-Saete C. Bioavailability of rectally administered lorazepam. Clin Neuropharmacol 1987;10:555-9.
  254. Lenaar FM, Bakker S, Visser J, Huizunga T. Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man. IX. Comparative biopharmaceutics of diazepam after single rectal, oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration. Int J Pharmaceut 1980;5:127-37.
  255. Cramer JA, Mattson RH, Bennett DM, Swick CT. Variable free and total valproic acid concentrations in sole- and multi-drug therapy. Ther Drug Monit 1986;8:411-15.
  256. Cramer JA, Mattson RH. Valproic acid: in vitro plasma protein binding and interaction with phenytoin. Ther Drug Monit 1979;1:105-16.
  257. Perucca E, Grimaldi R, Gatti G, Pirracchio S, Crema F, Frigo GM. Pharmacokinetics of valproic acid in the elderly. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984;17:665-9.
  258. Bauer LA, Davis R, Wilensky A, Raisys V, Levy RH. Valproic acid clearance: unbound fraction and diurnal variation in young and elderly adults. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1985;37:697-700.
  259. Bryson SM, Verma N, Scott PJ, Rubin PC. Pharmacokinetics of valproic acid in young and elderly subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1983;16:104-5.
  260. Gidal BE, Collins DM, Beinlich B. Apparent valproic acid neurotoxicity in a hypoalbuminemic patient. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:32-5.
  261. Levy RH, Penry JK. Idiosyncratic reactions to valproate. Clinical risk patterns and mechanisms of toxicity. New York: Raven Press, 1992.
  262. Asconape JJ, Penry JK, Dreifuss RE, et al. Valproate-associated pancreatitis. Epilepsia 1992;34:117-23.
  263. Abbott Laboratories. Depacon (valproate sodium intravenous) package insert. North Chicago, IL; June 2000.
  264. Eadie MJ, Lander CM, Hooper WD, Tyrer JH. Factors influencing plasma phenobarbitone levels in epileptic patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1977;4:541-7.
  265. Martines C, Gatti G, Sasso E, Calzetti S, Perucca E. The disposition of primidone in elderly patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1990;30:607-11.
  266. Richens A, Banfield CR, Salfi M, et al. Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of felbamate in the elderly. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997;44:129-34.
  267. Stewart BH, Kugler AR, Thompson PR, Bockbrader HN. A saturable transport mechanism in the intestinal absorption of gabapentin is the underlying cause of the lack of proportionality between increasing dose and drug levels in plasma. Pharm Res 1993;10:276-81.
  268. McLean MJ. Gabapentin. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 2):S73-86.
  269. Blum RA, Comstock TJ, Sica DA, et al. Gabapentin: pharmacokinetics in subjects with various degrees of renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994;56:154-9.
  270. Boyd RA, Turck D, Abel RB, Sedman AJ, Bockbrader HN. Effects of age and gender on single-dose pharmacokinetics of gabapentin. Epilepsia 1999;40:474-9.
  271. De Toledo JC, Toledo C, De Cerce J, Ramsay RE. Changes in body weight with chronic, high-dose gabapentin therapy. Ther Drug Monit 1997;19:394-6.
  272. Posner J, Holdich T, Chrome P. Comparison of lamotrigine pharmacokinetics in young and elderly healthy volunteers. J Pharm Med 1991;1:121-8.
  273. Goa KL, Ross SR, Chrisp P. Lamotrigine: a review of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in epilepsy. Drugs 1993;46:152-76.
  274. Wooton R, Soul-Lawton J, Rolan PE, Sheung CT, Cooper JD, Posner J. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine in patients with chronic renal failure and healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997;43:23-7.
  275. Messenheimer JA. Lamotrigine. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 2):S87-94.
  276. Giorgi L, Gomez G, O'Neill F, Hammer AE, Risner M. The tolerability of lamotrigine in elderly patients with epilepsy. Drugs Aging 2001;18:621-30.
  277. UCB Pharma. Trileptal (levetiracetam). Data on file. Smyrna, GA; 2000.
  278. Patsalos PN. Pharmacokinetic profile of LEV: towards ideal characteristics. Pharmacol Ther 2000;85:77-85.
  279. Rouan MC, Lecaillon JB, Godbillon J, et al. The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of oxcarbazepine and its metabolites. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1994;47:161-7.
  280. van Heiningen PN, Eve MD, Oosterhuis B, et al. The influence of age on the antiepileptic agent oxcarbazepine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1991;50:410-19.
  281. Friis ML, Kristensen O, Boas J, et al. Therapeutic experience with 947 epileptic out-patients in oxycarbazepine treatment. Acta Neurol Scand 1993;87:224-7.
  282. Anonymous. Two new drugs for epilepsy. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2000;42:33-5.
  283. Tecoma ES. Oxcarbazepine. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 5):S37-46.
  284. Dam M, Ekberg R, Loyning Y, Waltino O, Jacobsen K. A double-blind study comparing oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine in patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1989;3:70-6.
  285. Schacter SC, Vazquez B, Fisher RS, et al. Oxcarbazepine: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, monotherapy trial for partial seizures. Neurology 1999;52:732-7.
  286. Nielson OA, Johannessen AC, Bardrum B. Oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia, a cross-sectional study. Epilepsy Res 1988;2:269-71.
  287. Pendlebury SC, Moses DK, Eadie MJ. Hyponatremia during oxcarbazepine therapy. Hum Toxicol 1989;8:337-44.
  288. Kramer G, Tettenborn B, Jensen PK, Menge GP, Stoll KD. Oxcarbazepine does not affect the anticoagulant activity of warfarin. Epilepsia 1992;33:1145-8.
  289. Snell S, Jansen JA, Mengel HB, Richens A, Larsen S. The pharmacokinetics of tiagabine in healthy elderly volunteers and elderly patients with epilepsy. J Clin Pharmacol 1997;37:1015-20.
  290. Samara EE, Gustavson LE, El-Shourbagy T, Locke C, Granneman GR, Sommerville KW. Population analysis of the pharmacokinetics of tiagabine in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1998;39:868-73.
  291. Sachdeo RC, Leroy RF, Krauss GL, et al. Tiagabine therapy for complex partial seizures. A dose frequency study. Arch Neurol 1997;54:595-601.
  292. Lau AH, Gustavson LE, Sperelakis R, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of tiagabine in subjects with various degrees of hepatic function. Epilepsia 1997;38:445-51.
  293. Cato A, Gustavson LE, Qian JX, El-Shourbagy T, Kelly EA. Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of tiagabine. Epilepsia 1998;39:43-7.
  294. Leppik IE. Tiagabine: the safety landscape. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 6):S10-13.
  295. Shorvon SD. Safety of topiramate: adverse events and relationships to dosing. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 2):S18-22.
  296. Crawford P. An audit of topiramate use in a general neurology clinic. Seizure 1998;7:207-11.
  297. Wasserstein AG, Rak I, Reife RA. Investigation of the mechanistic basis of topiramate-associated nephrolithiasis of urinary and serum constituents [abstr]. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 3):S153.
  298. Wallace J, Shellenberger K, Groves L. Pharmacokinetics of zonisamide in young and elderly subjects [abstr]. Epilepsia 1998;39:190-1.
  299. Bourgeois BFD. Important pharmacokinetic properties of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 5):S1-7.
  300. Garnett WR. New opportunities for the treatment of epilepsy. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1995;52:88-91.
  301. Cockreell OC, Hart YM, Sander JWAS, Shorvon SD. The cost of epilepsy in the United Kingdom: an estimation based on the results of two population-based studies. Epilepsy Res 1994;18:249-60.