Which medications in the drug class Antiemetic Agents are used in the treatment of Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?

Updated: Jun 14, 2018
  • Author: J Martin Johnston, MD; Chief Editor: Max J Coppes, MD, PhD, MBA  more...
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Answer

Antiemetic Agents

Antiemetics are always prescribed before and after the administration of chemotherapy, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Ondansetron (Zofran, Zuplenz)

Ondansetron is a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that blocks serotonin peripherally and centrally. It prevents nausea and vomiting associated with emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (eg, high-dose cisplatin) and whole-body radiotherapy.

Granisetron (Kytril, Granisol, Sancuso)

At the chemoreceptor trigger zone, granisetron blocks serotonin centrally and peripherally on vagal nerve terminals.

Palonosetron (Aloxi)

Palonosetron, is a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a long half-life (40 h). It is a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that blocks serotonin peripherally and centrally. It prevents nausea and vomiting associated with emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (eg, high-dose cisplatin) and whole-body radiotherapy.

Dolasetron (Anzemet)

At the chemoreceptor trigger zone, granisetron blocks serotonin centrally and peripherally on vagal nerve terminals.

Metoclopramide (Reglan, Metozolv)

The antiemetic effect of metoclopramide appears to be due to its ability to block dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the central nervous system (CNS). This agent also enhances gastrointestinal motility and accelerates gastric emptying time.

Lorazepam (Ativan)

Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine used as an antiemetic in patients receiving chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin disease. By increasing the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, lorazepam may depress all levels of the CNS, including the limbic system and the reticular formation.

Chlorpromazine

The antiemetic effect of metoclopramide appears to be due to its ability to block dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the central nervous system (CNS).

Dronabinol

This agent inhibits endorphins in the brain's emetic center through an unknown mechanism.


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