What geographic factors increase the risk of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)?

Updated: Jun 14, 2018
  • Author: J Martin Johnston, MD; Chief Editor: Max J Coppes, MD, PhD, MBA  more...
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In sub-Saharan Africa, the development of endemic Burkitt lymphoma is strongly associated with previous exposures to malaria (with resultant T-cell suppression) and the Epstein-Barr virus. Speculation suggests that mosquito-borne arboviruses may also play a role in the development of Burkitt lymphoma in this part of the world.

In addition, exposure to 4-deoxyphorbol ester from the plant Euphorbia tirucalli (by means of goat's milk) is tentatively implicated in the pathogenesis of endemic Burkitt lymphoma. [14, 15]

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