Which genetic mutations affect the prognosis of pediatric acute myelocytic leukemia (AML)?

Updated: Sep 12, 2017
  • Author: Mark E Weinblatt, MD; Chief Editor: Jennifer Reikes Willert, MD  more...
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Answer

In addition to the established prognostic cytogenetic abnormalities, increasing evidence has revealed various molecular abnormalities that have an impact on outcome. The presence of the FLT3/ITD mutation, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutation, has been established as a predictor of worse outcome. These findings on the blast cells are now used to further stratify patients into risk groups with different treatment strategies.

Another gene affecting prognosis is the nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutation. The presence of this mutation has been shown to confer a favorable prognosis for event-free survival, although the combination of NPM1 and FLT3 mutations found in many patients is not favorable.

The presence of MLL gene is usually an unfavorable prognostic marker. The presence of the Wilms tumor gene (WT1) is also an adverse prognostic marker, with patients often failing to achieve complete remission.


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