What is the initial urine testing for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children?

Updated: Jul 21, 2020
  • Author: Sanjeev Gulati, MD, MBBS, DNB(Peds), DM, DNB(Neph), FIPN(Australia), FICN, FRCPC(Canada); Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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An initial evaluation consists of a multitest detection strip (dipstick) test, followed by urine microscopy. The dipstick is a quick method of screening and detecting proteinuria, hematuria, and pyuria and provides an estimate of the specific gravity (urine-concentrating capacity).

Urine microscopy is performed on a centrifuge-spun urine specimen to look for red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and casts. Most children with chronic kidney disease have broad hyaline casts. Characteristic findings on microscopic examination of the urine sediment may suggest a diagnosis other than chronic kidney disease. As an example, the presence of muddy-brown granular casts and epithelial cell casts is highly suggestive of acute tubular necrosis, whereas RBC casts would suggest an acute nephritic process.

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