What is the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children based on age?

Updated: Jul 21, 2020
  • Author: Sanjeev Gulati, MD, MBBS, DNB(Peds), DM, DNB(Neph), FIPN(Australia), FICN, FRCPC(Canada); Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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Answer

In the United States, the incidence and rate of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are equal in both sexes, although obstructive uropathies are more common in males.

ESRD rates in Black individuals are 2.7 times higher than in White individuals, which may be due to genetic susceptibility; other factors may include socioeconomic problems and limited access to medical care. Such factors may result in the delivery of excessive numbers of low birth weight (LBW) babies, partially accounting for the observed increased incidence of ESRD, because chronic kidney disease is more common with increasing prematurity and survivorship.

Choi et al found that rates of ESRD among Black patients exceeded those among White patients at all levels of baseline eGFR. [10] Similarly, mortality rates among Black patients were equal to or higher than those among White patients at all levels of eGFR. Risk of ESRD among Black patients was highest at an eGFR of 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m2, as was the risk of mortality. [1]

The frequency of chronic kidney disease increases with age and is much more common in adults than children. Among children, chronic kidney disease is more common in children older than 6 years than in those younger than 6 years. The percentages in the NAPRTCS cohort were 19% in children aged 0-1 years; 17% in those aged 6-12 years; 33% in children aged 2-5 years; and 31% in those older than 12 years. [6]


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