Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Updated: Mar 04, 2020
  • Author: Jerome C Lane, MD; Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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Answer

Black and Hispanic children appear to have an increased risk of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and FSGS. [46, 47] An increased incidence of INS is reported in Asian children (6 times the rate seen in European children). An increased incidence of INS is also seen in Indian, Japanese, and Southwest Asian children.

Primary steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) is rare in Africa, where nephrotic syndrome is more likely to be secondary or steroid-resistant. These variations in ethnic and geographic distribution of INS underscore the genetic and environmental influences in the development of PNS. [1]

In children younger than 8 years at onset, the ratio of males to females varies from 2:1 to 3:2 in various studies. In older children, adolescents, and adults, the male-to-female prevalence is approximately equal. ISKDC data indicate that 66% of patients with either MCNS or FSGS are male, whereas 65% of individuals with MPGN are female.

Of patients with MCNS, 70% are younger than 5 years. Only 20-30% of adolescents with INS have MCNS on biopsy findings. In the first year of life, genetic forms of INS and secondary nephrotic syndrome due to congenital infection predominate. [41]


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