Which clinical history findings are characteristic of childhood Shiga toxin–producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS)?

Updated: Nov 12, 2018
  • Author: Robert S Gillespie, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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Answer

Patients with Shiga toxin–producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) experience several days of diarrhea, with or without vomiting, followed by sudden onset of symptoms such as irritability and pallor. In more than 80% of patients, the diarrhea is visibly bloody. Other symptoms include restlessness, oliguria, edema, and macroscopic hematuria. In some patients, the prodrome may improve as hemolytic-uremic syndrome symptoms begin. The clinical picture may mimic that of an acute abdomen. In patients infected with a Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing strain of E coli, hemolytic-uremic syndrome occurs in 5-15%.

The risk of progression to hemolytic-uremic syndrome is increased in very young or elderly persons, in patients who have been treated with antimotility drugs or antibiotics, and in patients with a fever or a high leukocyte count.

The history should include inquiry about possible recent exposure to E coli, such as consuming undercooked meat, encounters with livestock or petting zoos, contacts with other persons with diarrhea, and attendance at daycare or school. However, most cases of STEC-HUS are sporadic, with no clearly identifiable source of infection, even when stool culture yields a toxigenic organism. Outbreaks involving multiple persons more commonly lead to a source.


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