What is gross hematuria?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: Sanjeev Gulati, MD, MBBS, DNB(Peds), DM, DNB(Neph), FIPN(Australia), FICN, FRCPC(Canada); Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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Answer

Categorizing patients with hematuria into one of the following groups is helpful:

  • Gross hematuria

    • Gross hematuria is alarming for the child's parents and sometimes for their pediatricians.

    • Gross hematuria is an uncommon finding in an unselected population of children. The prevalence of gross hematuria was reported as 0.13%, based on a retrospective review of children seen in an emergency walk-in clinic.

    • Most children with gross hematuria (56%) have an easily recognizable and apparent cause. The most common diagnoses include urinary tract infection, perineal irritation, trauma, meatal stenosis with ulceration, coagulation abnormalities, and urinary tract stones.

    • Less than half (44%) of children with gross hematuria had a cause that was either not obvious or that required additional or more sophisticated examinations. Among the diagnoses in this group are recurrent gross hematuria, acute nephritis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, cystitis cystica, epididymitis, tumor, hyperuricosuria, and hypercalciuria.

    • These children require referral to a pediatric nephrologist for detailed investigation and management.


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