Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Neonatal Sepsis?

Updated: Jun 13, 2019
  • Author: Nathan S Gollehon, MD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Muhammad Aslam, MD  more...
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Answer

Antibiotics, Other

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting. Neonatal doses for antibiotics may be based on several variables (eg, postmenstrual age [PMA], postnatal age, and weight).

Ampicillin

Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that is bactericidal for susceptible organisms, such as group B Streptococcus (GBS), Listeria, non–penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus, some strains of Haemophilus influenzae, and meningococci. Some publications recommend ampicillin (in combination with gentamicin) as first-line therapy for suspected sepsis in the newborn.

Gentamicin

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside that is bactericidal for susceptible gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Serratia species. It is effective in combination with ampicillin for GBS and Enterococcus. Some publications recommend gentamicin (in combination with ampicillin) as first-line therapy for suspected sepsis in the newborn.

Cefotaxime (Claforan)

Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin with excellent in vitro activity against GBS and E coli and other gram-negative enteric bacilli. Therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Concern exists that emergence of drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria may occur more rapidly with cefotaxime coverage than with traditional penicillin and aminoglycoside coverage.

Vancomycin

Vancomycin is a bactericidal agent that is effective against most aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive cocci and bacilli. It is especially important in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and is recommended when coagulase-negative staphylococcal sepsis is suspected. However, therapy with rifampin, gentamicin, or cephalothin may be required in cases of endocarditis or CSF shunt infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci.

Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol has been shown to be effective in the treatment of highly resistant bacterial meningitis. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding reversibly to 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible organisms, which, in turn, prevents amino acids from being transferred to growing peptide chains.

Oxacillin

Oxacillin is a bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis. It is used in the treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci. It may be given as initial therapy when a staphylococcal infection is suspected.

Piperacillin

Piperacillin is an acylampicillin with excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is also effective against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, B fragilis, Serratia marcescens, and many strains of Enterobacter. It is most often given in combination with the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam.

Erythromycin base (Erythrocin, Ery-Tab, EryPed, E.E.S.)

Erythromycin is a macrolide antimicrobial agent that is primarily bacteriostatic and is active against most gram-positive bacteria, such as Neisseria species, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Chlamydia trachomatis. It is not well concentrated in the CSF.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS, Septra DS)

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been shown to be effective in the treatment of highly resistant bacterial meningitis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should not be used if hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus are of concern in the newborn.


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