Which medications in the drug class Antifungals, Systemic are used in the treatment of Neonatal Sepsis?

Updated: Jun 13, 2019
  • Author: Nathan S Gollehon, MD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Muhammad Aslam, MD  more...
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Answer

Antifungals, Systemic

Fungal infections can masquerade as bacterial infections or may appear at the end of prolonged antibacterial therapy. Their mechanism of action may involve an alteration of RNA and DNA metabolism or an intracellular accumulation of peroxide, which is toxic to the fungal cell.

Fluconazole (Diflucan)

Fluconazole is used to treat susceptible fungal infections, including oropharyngeal, esophageal, and vaginal candidiasis. It is also used for systemic candidal infections and cryptococcal meningitis. Fluconazole has fungistatic activity. It is a synthetic oral antifungal (broad-spectrum bistriazole) that selectively inhibits fungal CYP450 and sterol C-14 alpha-demethylation, which prevents conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, thereby disrupting cellular membranes.

Amphotericin B (AmBisome)

Amphotericin B is used to treat severe systemic infections and meningitis caused by susceptible fungi, such as Candida and Aspergillus species, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus neoformans. This agent is a polyene produced by a strain of Streptomyces nodosus; it can be fungistatic or fungicidal. Amphotericin B binds to sterols, such as ergosterol, in the fungal cell membrane, causing intracellular components to leak and subsequent fungal cell death.

Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) may be considered for patients with systemic fungal infections resistant to amphotericin B or for patients with renal or hepatic failure. This product consists of amphotericin B within a single-bilayer liposomal drug delivery system.


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