What is included in long-term monitoring of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE)?

Updated: Jun 25, 2019
  • Author: Abhay J Bhatt, MD, MBBS; Chief Editor: Muhammad Aslam, MD  more...
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Monitoring for physical and psychomotor development in a neonatal follow-up care program or equivalent program is important, because most infants with pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) are premature and are at risk for developmental delay. In addition, PIE has been associated with increased risks of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), which also raise the risks of developmental delay in these infants.

Patients with chronic lung disease (CLD) may need pediatric pulmonology follow-up care. Note that the available literature remains unclear regarding the role of bronchodilator agents in preventing or treating CLD in preterm infants; in addition, no specific trials appear to have studied the use of these agents for managing CLD in this population. [59]

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