What is the global prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE)?

Updated: Jun 25, 2019
  • Author: Abhay J Bhatt, MD, MBBS; Chief Editor: Muhammad Aslam, MD  more...
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Studies reflecting the international frequency of PIE demonstrated that 2-3% of all infants in NICUs develop this condition. [11, 24] When limiting the study population to premature infants, the frequency increases to 20-30%, with the highest frequencies occurring in infants weighing less than 1000 g. [25]  A trial that compared high-frequency positive pressure mechanical ventilation (HFPPV) with conventional ventilation revealed a 25.8 % and 6.5% incidence of PIE in the respective groups. [26]

In another study of low birth weight infants, the incidence of PIE was 42% in infants with a birth weight of 500-799 g, 29% in those with a birth weight of 800-899 g, and 20% in those with a birth weight of 900-999 g. [27]  Unfortunately, minimal information is available about the prevalence of PIE in the postsurfactant era.

In a prospective multicenter trial comparing early high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and conventional ventilation in preterm infants of fewer than 30 weeks' gestation with RDS, 15 (11%) of 139 infants in the high-frequency group and 15 (11%) of 134 infants in the conventional group developed PIE. [24]

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