Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants are used in the treatment of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy?

Updated: Jul 18, 2018
  • Author: Santina A Zanelli, MD; Chief Editor: Dharmendra J Nimavat, MD, FAAP  more...
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These agents are used to control seizures.

Phenobarbital (Luminal)

Often used as a first-line agent for clinical and electrographic-only neonatal seizures. The duration of therapy will vary depending on both the EEG findings and clinical status. In most cases, can be weaned and stopped prior to NICU discharge; however, treatment may need to be continued for several months in infants with persistent neurologic abnormalities and clinical or EEG evidence of seizures. 

Phenytoin (Dilantin)

Can be used in infants with refractory seizures that do not respond to phenobarbital, levetiracetam, or lorazepam. Oral absorption is negligible for the first several months of life.

Lorazepam (Ativan)

Indicated for acute control of seizures refractory to phenobarbital.

By increasing the action of GABA, which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, may depress all levels of CNS, including limbic and reticular formation.

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