What is included in long-term monitoring of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)?

Updated: Jul 18, 2018
  • Author: Santina A Zanelli, MD; Chief Editor: Dharmendra J Nimavat, MD, FAAP  more...
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Growth parameters including head circumference should be closely monitored in all infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

Infants with moderate-to-severe HIE should be followed closely after neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge by a developmental pediatrician and, in some cases, a pediatric neurologist (if there is a history of seizure and/or abnormal neurologic examination). Additionally, evaluation by a pediatric ophthalmologist is recommended during the first year of life, because damage to the posterovisual cortex can occur. Standard hearing test screening should occur prior to NICU discharge. A repeat hearing screen is also recommended in the first 2 years of life. 

If therapeutic hypothermia was used in the neonatal period, follow-up is recommended for the continued evaluation of the long-term efficacy of this therapy. Data should be entered into the available registries, local databases, or both, whenever possible.

Infants with mild HIE generally do well and do not require specialized follow-up.

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