How are fluids and electrolytes managed in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)?

Updated: Jul 18, 2018
  • Author: Santina A Zanelli, MD; Chief Editor: Dharmendra J Nimavat, MD, FAAP  more...
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Because of the concern for acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion, fluid restriction is typically recommended for these infants until renal function and urine output can be evaluated. However, this recommendation is not based on evidence from randomized controlled trials. [71] Therefore, fluid and electrolyte management must be individualized on the basis of clinical course, changes in weight, urine output, and the results of serum electrolyte and renal function studies.

The role of prophylactic theophylline, given early after birth, in reducing renal dysfunction after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) has been evaluated in 3 small randomized controlled trials. [72, 73, 74] In these studies, a single dose of theophylline (5-8 mg/kg) given within 1 hour of birth resulted in (1) decreased severe renal dysfunction (defined as creatinine level >1.5 mg/dL for 2 consecutive days); (2) increased creatine clearance; (3) increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR); and (4) decreased b2 microglobulin excretion. The clinical significance of these findings remains unclear. Larger studies are warranted to confirm the safety of adenosine inhibitor use following HIE.

Fluid and glucose homeostasis should be achieved. Avoid hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia because both may accentuate brain damage. Hypoglycemia in particular should be avoided. In a retrospective study, Salhab et al showed that initial hypoglycemia (< 40 mg/dL) is significantly associated with adverse neurologic outsomes. [75]

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