What is the common histologic patterns of injury observed in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)?

Updated: Jul 18, 2018
  • Author: Santina A Zanelli, MD; Chief Editor: Dharmendra J Nimavat, MD, FAAP  more...
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Answer

Selective neuronal necrosis is the most common pattern of injury observed in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and is characterized by neuronal necrosis selective to areas with higher energy demands. The following 5 major patterns have been described:

  • Diffuse: Sites of predilection for diffuse neuronal necrosis include the cerebral cortex (particularly the hippocampus), deep nuclear structures (thalamus, basal ganglia), brain stem, cerebellum, and anterior horn of the spinal cord.

  • Cerebral cortex (deep nuclear): A predominant cerebral cortex (deep nuclear) pattern of injury is present in 35-85% of infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  • Brain stem (deep nuclear): Brain stem (deep nuclear) is the predominant lesion in 15-20% of infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Some of these lesions can evolve to status marmoratus . The 3 major features of status marmoratus include neuronal loss, gliosis and hypermyelination. This hypermyelination is believed to be secondary to myelin sheath formation and deposition around the prominent processes of reactive astrocytes. Patchy, white discoloration of the gray matter ("marbling") is sometimes observed on gross examination. This marbling is the macroscopic correlate of the hypermyelination and glial scarring seen on histologic examination. It is not seen in its complete form until the end of the first year of life.

  • Pontosubicular: This is the least common pattern and can occur in infants aged 1-2 months or younger.

  • Cerebellar: This primarily occurs in premature infants.


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