How frequently does hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) occur in the absence of risk factors?

Updated: Jul 18, 2018
  • Author: Santina A Zanelli, MD; Chief Editor: Dharmendra J Nimavat, MD, FAAP  more...
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Badawi et al investigated risk factors of neonatal encephalopathy in the Western Australian case control study. [20]  Of the 164 infants with moderate-to-severe neonatal encephalopathy, preconceptual and antepartum risk factors were identified in 69% of cases; 24% of infants had a combination of antepartum and intrapartum risk factors, whereas only 5% of infants had only intrapartum risk factors. In this study, 5% had no identifiable risk factors. In a review of the literature, Graham et al found that cerebral palsy is associated with intrapartum hypoxia-ischemia in only 14.5% of cases. [21]

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