Which medications in the drug class Antifungal agents are used in the treatment of Thrush?

Updated: Jan 17, 2019
  • Author: Mudra Kumar, MD, MRCP, FAAP; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Answer

Antifungal agents

The mechanism of action may involve an alteration of RNA and DNA metabolism or an intracellular accumulation of peroxide that is toxic to the fungal cell.

Nystatin (Mycostatin, Nilstat, Nystex)

DOC for oral thrush. No significant absorption from the intact skin, GI tract, or vagina. Fungicidal and fungistatic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces noursei; effective against various yeasts and yeastlike fungi. Changes permeability of fungal cell membrane after binding to cell membrane sterols, causing cellular contents to leak.

Amphotericin B deoxycholate (Fungizone Oral Suspension)

Produced by a strain of Streptomyces nodosus; can be fungistatic or fungicidal. Binds to sterols (eg, ergosterol) in the fungal cell membrane, causing intracellular components to leak with subsequent fungal cell death.

Clotrimazole (Mycelex Troches)

Alters cell membrane. Very effective treatment in immunocompetent host. If susp not available (not available in the United States), troches (lozenges) can be used, but troche has been associated with elevated liver enzymes and GI adverse effects.

Miconazole oral (Daktar)

Not available in the United States. Damages fungal cell wall membrane by inhibiting biosynthesis of ergosterol; increases membrane permeability, causing nutrients to leak out, resulting in fungal cell death.

Gentian violet

Although inexpensive, efficacious for thrush refractory to other therapies. Solution stains clothing and mucosa intensely, causing undesirable cosmetic effects.

Fluconazole (Diflucan)

Azole antifungal with excellent bioavailability. Interferes with cell membrane and is eliminated via renal pathway.

Fungistatic activity. Synthetic PO antifungal (broad-spectrum bistriazole) that selectively inhibits fungal CYP450 and sterol C-14 alpha-demethylation, which prevents conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, thereby disrupting cellular membranes.


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